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      Effects of dietary leucine supplementation on the hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism in normal birth weight and intrauterine growth-retarded weanling piglets

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          Abstract

          BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES

          The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary leucine supplementation on mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism in the liver of normal birth weight (NBW) and intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) weanling piglets.

          MATERIALS/METHODS

          A total of sixteen pairs of NBW and IUGR piglets from sixteen sows were selected according to their birth weight. At postnatal day 14, all piglets were weaned and fed either a control diet or a leucine-supplemented diet for 21 d. Thereafter, a 2 × 2 factorial experimental design was used. Each treatment consisted of eight replications with one piglet per replication.

          RESULTS

          Compared with NBW piglets, IUGR piglets had a decreased ( P < 0.05) hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content. Also, IUGR piglets exhibited reductions ( P < 0.05) in the activities of hepatic mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), citrate synthase (CS), α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (α-KGDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and complexes I and V, along with decreases ( P < 0.05) in the concentration of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the protein expression of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α). Dietary leucine supplementation increased ( P < 0.05) the content of ATP, and the activities of CS, α-KGDH, MDH, and complex V in the liver of piglets. Furthermore, compared to those fed a control diet, piglets given a leucine-supplemented diet exhibited increases ( P < 0.05) in the mtDNA content and in the mRNA expressions of sirtuin 1, PGC-1α, nuclear respiratory factor 1, mitochondrial transcription factor A, and ATP synthase, H + transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, β polypeptide in liver.

          CONCLUSIONS

          Dietary leucine supplementation may exert beneficial effects on mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism in NBW and IUGR weanling piglets.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Nutrient Requirements of Swine

          (2012)
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            Mitochondrial transcription factor A regulates mtDNA copy number in mammals.

            Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number regulation is altered in several human mtDNA-mutation diseases and it is also important in a variety of normal physiological processes. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is essential for human mtDNA transcription and we demonstrate here that it is also a key regulator of mtDNA copy number. We initially performed in vitro transcription studies and determined that the human TFAM protein is a poor activator of mouse mtDNA transcription, despite its high capacity for unspecific DNA binding. Next, we generated P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) transgenic mice ubiquitously expressing human TFAM. The introduced human TFAM gene was regulated in a similar fashion as the endogenous mouse Tfam gene and expression of the human TFAM protein in the mouse did not result in down-regulation of the endogenous expression. The PAC-TFAM mice thus had a net overexpression of TFAM protein and this resulted in a general increase of mtDNA copy number. We used a combination of mice with TFAM overexpression and TFAM knockout and demonstrated that mtDNA copy number is directly proportional to the total TFAM protein levels also in mouse embryos. Interestingly, the expression of human TFAM in the mouse results in up-regulation of mtDNA copy number without increasing respiratory chain capacity or mitochondrial mass. It is thus possible to experimentally dissociate mtDNA copy number regulation from mtDNA expression and mitochondrial biogenesis in mammals in vivo. In conclusion, our results provide genetic evidence for a novel role for TFAM in direct regulation of mtDNA copy number in mammals.
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              Branched-chain amino acid supplementation promotes survival and supports cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in middle-aged mice.

              Recent evidence points to a strong relationship between increased mitochondrial biogenesis and increased survival in eukaryotes. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been shown to extend chronological life span in yeast. However, the role of these amino acids in mitochondrial biogenesis and longevity in mammals is unknown. Here, we show that a BCAA-enriched mixture (BCAAem) increased the average life span of mice. BCAAem supplementation increased mitochondrial biogenesis and sirtuin 1 expression in primary cardiac and skeletal myocytes and in cardiac and skeletal muscle, but not in adipose tissue and liver of middle-aged mice, and this was accompanied by enhanced physical endurance. Moreover, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) defense system genes were upregulated, and ROS production was reduced by BCAAem supplementation. All of the BCAAem-mediated effects were strongly attenuated in endothelial nitric oxide synthase null mutant mice. These data reveal an important antiaging role of BCAAs mediated by mitochondrial biogenesis in mammals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutr Res Pract
                Nutr Res Pract
                NRP
                Nutrition Research and Practice
                The Korean Nutrition Society and the Korean Society of Community Nutrition
                1976-1457
                2005-6168
                April 2017
                20 March 2017
                : 11
                : 2
                : 121-129
                Affiliations
                College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Weigang 1, Nanjing, 210095, China.
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Tian Wang, Tel. 86-025-84395156, Fax. 86-025-84395156, tianwangnjau@ 123456163.com
                Article
                10.4162/nrp.2017.11.2.121
                5376530
                ©2017 The Korean Nutrition Society and the Korean Society of Community Nutrition

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: National Basic Research Program of China;
                Award ID: 2012CB124703
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China, CrossRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809;
                Award ID: 31572418
                Categories
                Original Research

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