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      Efficacy and safety of retinol palmitate ophthalmic solution in the treatment of dry eye: a Japanese Phase II clinical trial

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          The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the administration of retinol palmitate (VApal) ophthalmic solution (500 IU/mL) for the treatment of patients with dry eye.

          Patients and methods

          This study included 66 patients with dry eye. After a 2-week washout period, patients were randomized (1:1) into either a VApal ophthalmic solution or a placebo group, and a single drop of either solution was administered six times daily for 4 weeks. Efficacy measures were 12 subjective symptoms, rose bengal (RB) and fluorescein staining scores, tear film breakup time, and tear secretion. Safety measures included clinical blood and urine analyses and adverse event recordings.


          In comparisons of the two groups, the mean change in RB staining score from baseline was significantly lower in the VApal group at 2 and 4 weeks ( P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Furthermore, the fluorescein clearance rate (fluorescein staining score) was significantly higher in the VApal group at 4 weeks ( P<0.05). The VApal group showed a significant improvement in blurred vision at 1 and 2 weeks ( P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively), and the mean change in the total score for subjective symptoms from baseline was significantly lower in the VApal group at 1 week ( P<0.05). In before- and after-intervention comparisons, the fluorescein and RB staining scores showed improvement in both groups. Improvement was noted for 11 subjective symptoms in the VApal group and for seven symptoms in the placebo group. No significant differences in adverse events and reactions were found between the groups.


          VApal ophthalmic solution (500 IU/mL) is safe and effective for the treatment of patients with dry eye.

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          Most cited references 34

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          The epidemiology of dry eye disease: report of the Epidemiology Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007).

          The report of the Epidemiology Subcommittee of the 2007 Dry Eye WorkShop summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology of dry eye disease, providing prevalence and incidence data from various populations. It stresses the need to expand epidemiological studies to additional geographic regions, to incorporate multiple races and ethnicities in future studies, and to build a consensus on dry eye diagnostic criteria for epidemiological studies. Recommendations are made regarding several characteristics of dry eye questionnaires that might be suitable for use in epidemiological studies and randomized controlled clinical trials. Risk factors for dry eye and morbidity of the disease are identified, and the impact of dry eye disease on quality of life and visual function are outlined. Suggestions are made for further prospective research that would lead to improvement of both eye and general public health.
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            Preservatives in eyedrops: the good, the bad and the ugly.

            There is a large body of evidence from experimental and clinical studies showing that the long-term use of topical drugs may induce ocular surface changes, causing ocular discomfort, tear film instability, conjunctival inflammation, subconjunctival fibrosis, epithelial apoptosis, corneal surface impairment, and the potential risk of failure for further glaucoma surgery. Subclinical inflammation has also been described in patients receiving antiglaucoma treatments for long periods of time. However, the mechanisms involved, i.e., allergic, toxic, or inflammatory, as well as the respective roles of the active compound and the preservative in inducing the toxic and/or proinflammatory effects of ophthalmic solutions, is still being debated. The most frequently used preservative, benzalkonium chloride (BAK), has consistently demonstrated its toxic effects in laboratory, experimental, and clinical studies. As a quaternary ammonium, this compound has been shown to cause tear film instability, loss of goblet cells, conjunctival squamous metaplasia and apoptosis, disruption of the corneal epithelium barrier, and damage to deeper ocular tissues. The mechanisms causing these effects have not been fully elucidated, although the involvement of immunoinflammatory reactions with the release of proinflammatory cytokines, apoptosis, oxidative stress, as well as direct interactions with the lipid components of the tear film and cell membranes have been well established. Preservative-induced adverse effects are therefore far from being restricted to only allergic reactions, and side effects are often very difficult to identify because they mostly occur in a delayed or poorly specific manner. Care should therefore be taken to avoid the long-term use of preservatives, otherwise a less toxic alternative to BAK should be developed, as this weakly allergenic but highly toxic compound exerts dose- and time-dependent effects. On the basis of all these experimental and clinical reports, it would be advisable to use benzalkonium-free solutions whenever possible, especially in patients with the greatest exposure to high doses or prolonged treatments, in those suffering from preexisting or concomitant ocular surface diseases, and those experiencing side effects related to the ocular surface. Indeed, mild symptoms should not be underestimated, neglected, or denied, because they may very well be the apparent manifestations of more severe, potentially threatening subclinical reactions that may later cause major concerns. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Prevalence of dry eye disease among US men: estimates from the Physicians' Health Studies.

              To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for dry eye disease (DED) among US men. Cross-sectional prevalence survey among male participants 50 years and older in the Physicians' Health Studies I (N = 18,596) and II (N = 6848). We defined DED as the presence of clinically diagnosed dry eye or severe symptoms (both dryness and irritation constantly or often). We calculated the age-standardized prevalence of DED adjusted to the age distribution of US men in 2004 and projected estimates forward to 2030. We compared DED prevalence with a similar cohort of women and examined associations with possible risk factors. The prevalence of DED increased with age, from 3.90% among men aged 50 to 54 years to 7.67% among men 80 years and older (P for trend <.001). High blood pressure (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.45) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.44) were associated with a higher risk of DED. Use of antidepressants, antihypertensives, and medications to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia were also associated with increased risk of DED. The age-standardized prevalence of DED was 4.34%, or 1.68 million men 50 years and older, and is expected to affect more than 2.79 million US men by 2030. Dry eye disease is prevalent and increases with age, hypertension, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and antidepressant use.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                23 June 2017
                : 11
                : 1871-1879
                [1 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Shizuoka
                [2 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine
                [3 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo Tokyo Koto Geriatric Medical Center, Tokyo
                [4 ]Pharmaceutical Research Laboratories, Lion Corporation, Kanagawa
                [5 ]Tamagawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo
                [6 ]Otake Eye Clinic, Kanagawa
                [7 ]Kato Eye Clinic, Tokyo
                [8 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Chiba, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Hiroshi Toshida, Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, 1129, Nagaoka, Izunokuni, Shizuoka 410-2295, Japan, Tel +81 55 948 3111, Fax +81 55 948 5088, Email toshida@ 123456juntendo.ac.jp
                © 2017 Toshida et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Clinical Trial Report

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                vitamin a, cornea, conjunctiva, tear, mucin


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