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      Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management (submit here)

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      Is Open Access

      The importance of early identification of infusion-related reactions to monoclonal antibodies


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          Monoclonal antibodies constitute important and useful tools in clinical practice and biotechnology for diagnosing and treating infectious, inflammatory, immunological and neoplastic diseases. This article reviews evidence on the different acute adverse effects of monoclonal antibodies, specifically infusion-related reactions (IRRs), and on the measures that should be taken before and during crises. A literature search using key terms relating to IRRs produced by monoclonal antibodies was undertaken to generate a comprehensive narrative review of the information available. Immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies may produce IRRs and hypersensitivity-related reactions. Strategies to avoid or minimize the appearance of IRRs depend on the monoclonal antibody and type of patient and reaction (pre-medication, slowing infusion rates, infusion interruption or desensitization, etc.). Considering the great number of available monoclonal antibodies in current practice and those which will soon be authorized, it is mandatory to have clear guidelines that can give support to practitioners and nurses to help them respond quickly and safely to the different IRRs related to the use of these therapeutic drugs.

          Most cited references31

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          Drug allergy: an updated practice parameter.

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          Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) result in major health problems in the United States in both the inpatient and outpatient setting. ADRs are broadly categorized into predictable (type A and unpredictable (type B) reactions. Predictable reactions are usually dose dependent, are related to the known pharmacologic actions of the drug, and occur in otherwise healthy individuals, They are estimated to comprise approximately 80% of all ADRs. Unpredictable are generally dose independent, are unrelated to the pharmacologic actions of the drug, and occur only in susceptible individuals. Unpredictable reactions are subdivided into drug intolerance, drug idiosyncrasy, drug allergy, and pseudoallergic reactions. Both type A and B reactions may be influenced by genetic predisposition of the patient
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            Complement activation-related pseudoallergy: a new class of drug-induced acute immune toxicity.

            G. Szebeni (2005)
            A major goal in modern pharmacotechnology is to increase the therapeutic index of drugs by using nanoparticulate vehicle systems in order to ensure slow release or targeted delivery of drugs. With all great benefits, however, these innovative therapies can carry a risk for acute immune toxicity manifested in hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) that do not involve IgE but arises as a consequence of activation of the complement (C) system. These anaphylactoid reactions can be distinguished within the Type I category of HSRs as "C activation-related pseudoallergy" (CARPA). Drugs and agents causing CARPA include radiocontrast media (RCM), liposomal drugs (Doxil, Ambisome and DaunoXome) and micellar solvents containing amphiphilic lipids (e.g., Cremophor EL, the vehicle of Taxol). These agents activate C through both the classical and the alternative pathways, giving rise to C3a and C5a anaphylatoxins that trigger mast cells and basophils for secretory response that underlies HSRs. Pigs provide a useful model for liposome-induced CARPA as minute amounts of reactogenic lipomes cause C activation with consequent dramatic cardiovascular and laboratory abnormalities that mimic some of the human symptoms. Consistent with the causal role of C activation in liposome-induced HSRs, a recent clinical study demonstrated correlation between the formation of C terminal complex (SC5b-9) in blood and the presence of HSRs in patients treated with liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil). Overall, the CARPA concept may help in the prediction, prevention and treatment of the acute immune toxicity of numerous state-of-the-art drugs.
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              The incidence and management of infusion reactions to infliximab: a large center experience.

              To assess the incidence and management of infusion reactions to infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets human tumor necrosis factor-alpha, in patients with Crohn's disease treated at a large infusion center. A total of 165 consecutive patients who received 479 infliximab infusions in the Division of Clinical Immunology Infusion Center at Mount Sinai Medical Center from July, 1998 to January, 2001 were evaluated. Specific treatment protocols for initial and subsequent acute infusion reactions were followed and the outcomes documented. The overall incidence of infusion reactions to infliximab was 6.1% (29 of 479) of infusions, affecting 9.7% (16 of 165) of patients. Mild, moderate, or severe acute reactions occurred in 3.1% (15 of 479), 1.2% (six of 479), and 1.0% (five of 479) of infliximab infusions, respectively. Use of treatment protocols resulted in rapid resolution of all acute reactions to infliximab. With the prophylaxis protocol, all patients who experienced an initial mild or moderate acute reaction were able to receive additional infusions. Four patients experienced a total of five severe acute reactions. Three patients were retreated: two patients had no further problems, whereas one patient had a second severe acute reaction that rapidly resolved with treatment. Suggesting that acute infusion reactions are not type I hypersensitivity reactions, in 11 patients who experienced 14 acute infusion reactions, serum tryptase levels were normal. Delayed infusion reactions occurred in 0.6% (three of 479) of infusions. Infliximab infusions were accompanied by acute reactions in approximately 5% of infusions. These reactions did not seem to be true IgE-mediated type I hypersensitivity events. Using appropriate treatment protocols, these reactions were effectively treated and prevented upon retreatment in nearly all patients. Delayed reactions were rare, occurring in <1% of infusions.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                01 August 2019
                : 15
                : 965-977
                [1 ] Department of Nursing, University of Extremadura , Badajoz, Spain
                [2 ] Department of Biomedicine, University of Extremadura , Badajoz, Spain
                [3 ] Intensive Care Medicine Department, University Hospital of Badajoz, Servicio Extremeño de Salud , Badajoz, Spain
                [4 ] Oncology Department, University Hospital of Badajoz, Servicio Extremeño de Salud , Badajoz, Spain
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Macarena C CáceresFaculty of Medicine, University of Extremadura , Avda de Elvas s/n, Badajoz06071, SpainTel +34 92 428 9466Fax +34 92 427 2983Email mcaceres@ 123456unex.es
                © 2019 Cáceres et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                : 11 February 2019
                : 27 May 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 39, Pages: 13

                antibodies,monoclonal,drug-related side effects and adverse reactions,nurse practitioners


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