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      Engineering two-photon high-dimensional states through quantum interference

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          Abstract

          A simple approach to preparing high-dimensional entangled states by quantum interference.

          Abstract

          Many protocols in quantum science, for example, linear optical quantum computing, require access to large-scale entangled quantum states. Such systems can be realized through many-particle qubits, but this approach often suffers from scalability problems. An alternative strategy is to consider a lesser number of particles that exist in high-dimensional states. The spatial modes of light are one such candidate that provides access to high-dimensional quantum states, and thus they increase the storage and processing potential of quantum information systems. We demonstrate the controlled engineering of two-photon high-dimensional states entangled in their orbital angular momentum through Hong-Ou-Mandel interference. We prepare a large range of high-dimensional entangled states and implement precise quantum state filtering. We characterize the full quantum state before and after the filter, and are thus able to determine that only the antisymmetric component of the initial state remains. This work paves the way for high-dimensional processing and communication of multiphoton quantum states, for example, in teleportation beyond qubits.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons.

           A Mair,  A Vaziri,  G Weihs (2001)
          Entangled quantum states are not separable, regardless of the spatial separation of their components. This is a manifestation of an aspect of quantum mechanics known as quantum non-locality. An important consequence of this is that the measurement of the state of one particle in a two-particle entangled state defines the state of the second particle instantaneously, whereas neither particle possesses its own well-defined state before the measurement. Experimental realizations of entanglement have hitherto been restricted to two-state quantum systems, involving, for example, the two orthogonal polarization states of photons. Here we demonstrate entanglement involving the spatial modes of the electromagnetic field carrying orbital angular momentum. As these modes can be used to define an infinitely dimensional discrete Hilbert space, this approach provides a practical route to entanglement that involves many orthogonal quantum states, rather than just two Multi-dimensional entangled states could be of considerable importance in the field of quantum information, enabling, for example, more efficient use of communication channels in quantum cryptography.
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            Quantum teleportation of multiple degrees of freedom of a single photon.

            Quantum teleportation provides a 'disembodied' way to transfer quantum states from one object to another at a distant location, assisted by previously shared entangled states and a classical communication channel. As well as being of fundamental interest, teleportation has been recognized as an important element in long-distance quantum communication, distributed quantum networks and measurement-based quantum computation. There have been numerous demonstrations of teleportation in different physical systems such as photons, atoms, ions, electrons and superconducting circuits. All the previous experiments were limited to the teleportation of one degree of freedom only. However, a single quantum particle can naturally possess various degrees of freedom--internal and external--and with coherent coupling among them. A fundamental open challenge is to teleport multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously, which is necessary to describe a quantum particle fully and, therefore, to teleport it intact. Here we demonstrate quantum teleportation of the composite quantum states of a single photon encoded in both spin and orbital angular momentum. We use photon pairs entangled in both degrees of freedom (that is, hyper-entangled) as the quantum channel for teleportation, and develop a method to project and discriminate hyper-entangled Bell states by exploiting probabilistic quantum non-demolition measurement, which can be extended to more degrees of freedom. We verify the teleportation for both spin-orbit product states and hybrid entangled states, and achieve a teleportation fidelity ranging from 0.57 to 0.68, above the classical limit. Our work is a step towards the teleportation of more complex quantum systems, and demonstrates an increase in our technical control of scalable quantum technologies.
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              Security of quantum key distribution using d-level systems

               ,  ,   (2001)
              We consider two quantum cryptographic schemes relying on encoding the key into qudits, i.e. quantum states in a d-dimensional Hilbert space. The first cryptosystem uses two mutually unbiased bases (thereby extending the BB84 scheme), while the second exploits all the d+1 available such bases (extending the six-state protocol for qubits). We derive the information gained by a potential eavesdropper applying a cloning-based individual attack, along with an upper bound on the error rate that ensures unconditional security against coherent attacks.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Adv
                Sci Adv
                SciAdv
                advances
                Science Advances
                American Association for the Advancement of Science
                2375-2548
                February 2016
                26 February 2016
                : 2
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa.
                [2 ]School of Physics, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa.
                [3 ]School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa.
                [4 ]National Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa.
                [5 ]Institute of Photonics and Quantum Science (IPaQS), Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA), Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK.
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. E-mail: andrew.forbes@ 123456wits.ac.za
                Article
                1501165
                10.1126/sciadv.1501165
                4771439
                26933685
                Copyright © 2016, The Authors

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, so long as the resultant use is not for commercial advantage and provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Research Article
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                Quantum Mechanics
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                Riza Jane Cortez

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