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      Fragile X syndrome: An overview and update of the FMR1 gene

      , , ,
      Clinical Genetics
      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Intention tremor, parkinsonism, and generalized brain atrophy in male carriers of fragile X.

          The authors report five elderly men with the fragile X premutation who had a progressive action tremor associated with executive function deficits and generalized brain atrophy. These individuals had elevated fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) messenger RNA and normal or borderline levels of FMR1 protein. The authors propose that elevations of FMR1 messenger RNA may be causative for a neurodegenerative syndrome in a subgroup of elderly men with the FMR1 premutation.
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            Molecular mechanisms of fragile X syndrome: a twenty-year perspective.

            Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a common form of inherited intellectual disability and is one of the leading known causes of autism. The mutation responsible for FXS is a large expansion of the trinucleotide CGG repeat in the 5' untranslated region of the X-linked gene FMR1. This expansion leads to DNA methylation of FMR1 and to transcriptional silencing, which results in the absence of the gene product, FMRP, a selective messenger RNA (mRNA)-binding protein that regulates the translation of a subset of dendritic mRNAs. FMRP is critical for mGluR (metabotropic glutamate receptor)-dependent long-term depression, as well as for other forms of synaptic plasticity; its absence causes excessive and persistent protein synthesis in postsynaptic dendrites and dysregulated synaptic function. Studies continue to refine our understanding of FMRP's role in synaptic plasticity and to uncover new functions of this protein, which have illuminated therapeutic approaches for FXS.
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              Chronic pharmacological mGlu5 inhibition corrects fragile X in adult mice.

              Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. Previous studies have implicated mGlu5 in the pathogenesis of the disease, but a crucial unanswered question is whether pharmacological mGlu5 inhibition is able to reverse an already established FXS phenotype in mammals. Here we have used the novel, potent, and selective mGlu5 inhibitor CTEP to address this issue in the Fmr1 knockout mouse. Acute CTEP treatment corrects elevated hippocampal long-term depression, protein synthesis, and audiogenic seizures. Chronic treatment that inhibits mGlu5 within a receptor occupancy range of 81% ± 4% rescues cognitive deficits, auditory hypersensitivity, aberrant dendritic spine density, overactive ERK and mTOR signaling, and partially corrects macroorchidism. This study shows that a comprehensive phenotype correction in FXS is possible with pharmacological intervention starting in young adulthood, after development of the phenotype. It is of great interest how these findings may translate into ongoing clinical research testing mGlu5 inhibitors in FXS patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinical Genetics
                Clin Genet
                Wiley-Blackwell
                00099163
                February 2018
                February 01 2018
                : 93
                : 2
                : 197-205
                Article
                10.1111/cge.13075
                28617938
                77c55d7b-58d6-4adb-a843-c904d4370d33
                © 2018

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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