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      The inevitable drift to triple therapy in COPD: an analysis of prescribing pathways in the UK

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          Abstract

          Background

          Real-world prescription pathways leading to triple therapy (TT) (inhaled corticosteroid [ICS] plus long-acting β 2-agonist bronchodilator [LABA] plus long-acting muscarinic antagonist) differ from Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence treatment recommendations. This study sets out to identify COPD patients without asthma receiving TT, and determine the pathways taken from diagnosis to the first prescription of TT.

          Methods

          This was a historical analysis of COPD patients without asthma from the Optimum Patient Care Research Database (387 primary-care practices across the UK) from 2002 to 2010. Patient disease severity was classified using GOLD 2013 criteria. Data were analyzed to determine prescribing of TT before, at, and after COPD diagnosis; the average time taken to receive TT; and the impact of lung function grade, modified Medical Research Council dyspnea score, and exacerbation history on the pathway to TT.

          Results

          During the study period, 32% of patients received TT. Of these, 19%, 28%, 37%, and 46% of patients classified as GOLD A, B, C, and D, respectively, progressed to TT after diagnosis ( P<0.001). Of all patients prescribed TT, 25% were prescribed TT within 1 year of diagnosis, irrespective of GOLD classification ( P=0.065). The most common prescription pathway to TT was LABA plus ICS. It was observed that exacerbation history did influence the pathway of LABA plus ICS to TT.

          Conclusion

          Real life UK prescription data demonstrates the inappropriate prescribing of TT and confirms that starting patients on ICS plus LABA results in the inevitable drift to overuse of TT. This study highlights the need for dissemination and implementation of COPD guidelines to physicians, ensuring that patients receive the recommended therapy.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Epidemiology and costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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            Efficacy and safety of once-daily QVA149 compared with twice-daily salmeterol-fluticasone in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ILLUMINATE): a randomised, double-blind, parallel group study.

            QVA149 is an inhaled fixed-dose combination therapy under development for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It combines indacaterol (a longacting β2-agonist) with glycopyrronium (a longacting muscarinic antagonist) as a dual bronchodilator. We aimed to compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of QVA149 versus salmeterol-fluticasone (SFC) over 26 weeks in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. In this multicentre double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group study, 523 patients (age 40 years or older, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] stages II-III, without exacerbations in the previous year) were randomly assigned (1:1; via automated, interactive response technology and stratified for smoking status) to once-daily QVA149 110/50 μg or twice-daily SFC 50/500 μg for 26 weeks. Efficacy was assessed in the full analysis set (randomised patients who received at least one dose of study drug); safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. The primary endpoint was to demonstrate the superiority of QVA149 compared with SFC for the standardised area under the curve from 0 to 12 h post dose for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 AUC0-12h) after 26 weeks of treatment. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrial.gov, NCT01315249. Between March 25, 2011, and March 12, 2012, 259 patients were randomly assigned to receive QVA149 and 264 to receive SFC. At week 26, FEV1 AUC0-12h was significantly higher with QVA149 than with SFC (treatment difference 0·138 L; 95% CI 0·100-0·176; p<0·0001). Overall incidence of adverse events (including COPD exacerbations) was 55·4% (143 of 258) for the QVA149 group and 60·2% (159 of 264) for the SFC group. Incidence of serious adverse events was similar between treatment groups (QVA149, 13 of 258 [5·0%]; SFC 14 of 264 [5·3%]); COPD worsening was the most frequent serious adverse event (one of 13 [0·4%] and three of 14 [1·1%], respectively). Once-daily QVA149 provides significant, sustained, and clinically meaningful improvements in lung function versus twice-daily SFC, with significant symptomatic benefit. These results indicate the potential of dual bronchodilation as a treatment option for non-exacerbating symptomatic COPD patients. Novartis Pharma AG. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Effectiveness of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol combination delivered via the Diskus device in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

              This randomized controlled trial examined the benefits of combining an inhaled corticosteroid, fluticasone propionate (F), with an inhaled long-acting beta(2)-agonist, salmeterol (S), to treat the inflammatory and bronchoconstrictive components of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A total of 691 patients with COPD received the combination of F and S (FSC), S (50 mcg), F (500 mcg), or placebo twice daily via the Diskus device for 24 weeks. A significantly greater increase in predose FEV(1) at the endpoint was observed after FSC (156 ml) compared with S (107 ml, p = 0.012) and placebo (-4 ml, p < 0.0001). A significantly greater increase in 2-hour postdose FEV(1) at the endpoint was observed after treatment with FSC (261 ml) compared with F (138 ml, p < 0.001) and placebo (28 ml, p < 0.001). There were greater improvements in the Transition Dyspnea Index with FSC (2.1) compared with F (1.3, p = 0.033), S (0.9, p < 0.001), and placebo (0.4, p < 0.0001). The incidence of adverse effects (except for an increase in oral candidiasis with FSC and F) was similar among the treatment groups. We conclude that FSC improved lung function and reduced the severity of dyspnea compared with individual components and placebo.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2015
                15 October 2015
                : 10
                : 2207-2217
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital Ghent, Ghent, Belgium
                [2 ]Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands
                [3 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands
                [4 ]Centre of Academic Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
                [5 ]Research in Real Life (RiRL), Singapore
                [6 ]Box Surgery, Wiltshire, UK
                [7 ]Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Barcelona, Spain
                [8 ]Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
                [9 ]Novartis Pharmaceuticals Limited, Horsham, UK
                [10 ]Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, Plymouth, UK
                Author notes
                Correspondence: David Price, Research in Real Life, 2 Changi Business Park Avenue 1, Level 2, Singapore 486015 Email david@ 123456respiratoryresearch.org
                Article
                copd-10-2207
                10.2147/COPD.S91694
                4621207
                © 2015 Brusselle et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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