Obesity and overweight have become one of the most concerning health problems in Japan. Japan has been keeping the longest life expectancy in the last decade after the very rapid economic growth. However, the increases in chronic degenerative diseases that are partly due to over-nutrition and obesity will be a large burden in an aging society . Also in Japan, the increase of obese and overweight population is not only due to over eating but also to less exercise and daily activities. In this paper, the situation of the obese and overweight people and the trends of obesity from 1947 to 2000 in adults and children as well as the food intake tendencies during the past 50 years are summarized .