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      Pathobiology of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

      1 ,
      Physiological reviews
      American Physiological Society

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          Abstract

          Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), comprised of pulmonary emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and structural and inflammatory changes of small airways, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. A better understanding of the pathobiology of COPD is critical for the developing of novel therapies, as the majority of patients with the disease have little therapeutic options at the present time. The pathobiology of COPD encompasses multiple injurious processes including inflammation (excessive or inappropriate innate and adaptive immunity), cellular apoptosis, altered cellular and molecular alveolar maintenance program, abnormal cell repair, extracellular matrix destruction (protease and anti-protease imbalance), and oxidative stress (oxidant and antioxidant imbalance). These processes are triggered by urban and rural air pollutants and active and/or passive cigarette smoke and modified by cellular senescence and infection. A series of receptor-mediated signal transduction pathways are activated by reactive oxygen species and tobacco components, resulting in impairment of a variety of cell signaling and cytokine networks, subsequently leading to chronic airway responses with mucus production, airway remodeling, and alveolar destruction. The authors provide an updated insight into the molecular and cellular pathobiology of COPD based on human and/or animal data.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Physiol Rev
          Physiological reviews
          American Physiological Society
          0031-9333
          0031-9333
          Jul 2007
          : 87
          : 3
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Division of Cardiopulmonary Pathology, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.
          Article
          87/3/1047
          10.1152/physrev.00048.2006
          17615396
          77ccb15c-cbeb-443c-9b53-a17a9412bac5

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