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      Isolation, pharmacological evaluation and molecular docking studies of bioactive compounds from Grewia optiva

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          Traditionally, Grewia optiva is widely used for the treatment of many diseases like dysentery, fever, typhoid, diarrhea, eczema, smallpox, malaria and cough.


          Shade-dried roots of G. optiva were extracted with methanol. Based on HPLC results, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions were subjected to silica column isolation and four compounds: glutaric acid (V), 3,5 dihydroxy phenyl acrylic acid (VI), (2,5 dihydroxy phenyl) 3',6',8'-trihydroxyl-4H chromen-4'-one (VII) and hexanedioic acid (VIII) were isolated in pure form. Ellman’s assay was used to determine the anticholinesterase potential of isolated compounds while their antioxidant potential was estimated by DPPH and ABTS scavenging assays.


          Amongst the isolated compounds, VI and VII exhibited excellent percent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) (83.23±1.11, 82.72±2.20 and 82.11±2.11, 82.23±1.21, respectively, at 1000 µg/mL) with IC 50 of 76, 90, 78 and 92 µg/mL, respectively. Highest percent radicals scavenging against DPPH and ABTS (87.41±1.20 and 86.13±2.31) with IC 50 of 64 and 65 µg/mL, respectively, were observed for compound VII. Molecular docking studies also supported the binding of compound VI and VII with the target enzyme. The para-hydroxyl group of the phenolic moiety is formed hydrogen bonds with the active site water molecule and the side chain carbonyl and hydroxyl residues of enzyme.


          The isolated compounds inhibited the DPPH and ABTS-free radicals, and AChE and BChE enzymes. It was concluded that these compounds could be used in relieving the oxidative stress and pathological symptoms associated with excessive hydrolysis of acetyl and butyryl choline. The results of the study were supported by docking studies for compounds VI and VII.

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          Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of selected medicinal plants containing phenolic and flavonoid compounds.

          The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities of water and ethanol extracts of 14 Chinese medicinal plants were investigated and also their total phenolics and flavonoid contents measured. The antioxidant activity was evaluated in a biological assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae , whereas the radical scavenging activity was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Total phenolics and flavonoid contents were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. The anti-inflammatory activities of the plant extracts were determined by measuring the inhibition of production of nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-α in LPS and IFN-γ activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Their cytotoxic activities against macrophages were determined by Alamar Blue assay. Four plants, namely, Scutellaria baicalensis , Taxillus chinensis , Rheum officinale , and Sophora japonica , showed significant antioxidant activity in both yeast model and also free radical scavenging methods. The ethanol extract of S. japonica showed highest levels of phenolics and flavonoids (91.33 GAE mg/g and 151.86 QE mg/g, respectively). A positive linear correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenolics and flavonoid contents indicates that these compounds are likely to be the main antioxidants contributing to the observed activities. Five plant extracts (S. baicalensis, T. chinensis, S. japonica, Mahonia fortunei , and Sophora flavescens ) exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity by in vitro inhibition of the production of NO and TNF-α with low IC(50) values. These findings suggest that some of the medicinal herbs studied in this paper are good sources of antioxidants.
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            Phenolic contents, antioxidant and anticholinesterase potentials of crude extract, subsequent fractions and crude saponins from Polygonum hydropiper L

            Background We investigated Polygonum hydropiper L. (P. hydropiper) for phenolic contents, antioxidant, anticholinesterase activities, in an attempt to rationalize its use in neurological disorders. Methods Plant crude extract (Ph.Cr), its subsequent fractions: n-hexane (Ph.Hex), chloroform (Ph.Chf), ethyl acetate (Ph.EtAc), n-Butanol (Ph.Bt), aqueous (Ph.Aq) and saponins (Ph.Sp) were evaluated for 1,1-diphenyl,2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis[3-ethylbenzthiazoline]-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) free radical scavenging potential. Further, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) & butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities were performed using Ellman's assay. Moreover, total phenolic contents of plant extracts were determined and expressed in mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry sample (mg GAE/g dry weight). Results Among different fractions, Ph.Cr (90.82), Ph.Chf (178.16), Ph.EtAc (203.44) and Ph.Bt (153.61) exhibited high phenolic contents. All fractions showed concentration dependent DPPH scavenging activity, with Ph.EtAc 71.33% (IC50 15 μg/ml), Ph.Bt 71.40% (IC50 3 μg/ml) and Ph.Sp 71.40% (IC50 35 μg/ml) were most potent. The plant extracts exhibited high ABTS scavenging ability i.e. Ph.Bt (91.03%), Ph.EtAc (90.56%), Ph.Sp (90.84%), Ph.Aq (90.56%) with IC50 < 0.01 μg/ml. All fractions showed moderate to high AChE inhibitory activity as; Ph.Cr, 86.87% (IC50 330 μg/ml), Ph.Hex, 87.49% (IC50 35 μg/ml), Ph.Chf, 84.76% (IC50 55 μg/ml), Ph.Sp, 87.58% (IC50 108 μg/ml) and Ph.EtAc 79.95% (IC50 310 μg/ml) at 1 mg/ml). Furthermore the BChE inhibitory activity was most prominent in Ph.Hex 90.30% (IC50 40 μg/ml), Ph.Chf 85.94% (IC50 215 μg/ml), Ph.Aq 87.62% (IC50 3 μg/ml) and Ph.EtAc 81.01% (IC50 395 μg/ml) fractions. Conclusions In this study, for the first time, we determined phenolic contents, isolated crude saponins, investigated antioxidant and anticholinestrase potential of P. hydropiper extracts. The results indicate that P. hydropiper is enriched with potent bioactive compounds and warrant further investigation by isolation and structural elucidation to find novel and affordable compounds for the treatment of various neurological disorders.
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              Anti-Alzheimer’s Studies on β-Sitosterol Isolated from Polygonum hydropiper L.

              The family Polygonaceae is known for its traditional use in the management of various neurological disorders including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In search of new anti-AD drugs, β-sitosterol isolated from Polygonum hydropiper was subjected to in vitro, in vivo, behavioral and molecular docking studies to confirm its possibility as a potential anti-Alzheimer’s agent. The in vitro AChE, BChE inhibitory potentials of β-sitosterol were investigated following Ellman’s assay. The antioxidant activity was tested using DPPH, ABTS and H2O2 assays. Behavioral studies were performed on a sub-strain of transgenic mice using shallow water maze (SWM), Y-maze and balance beam tests. β-sitosterol was tested for in vivo inhibitory potentials against cholinesterase’s and free radicals in the frontal cortex (FC) and hippocampus (HC). The molecular docking study was performed to predict the binding mode of β-sitosterol in the active sites of AChE and BChE as inhibitor. Considerable in vitro and in vivo cholinesterase inhibitory effects were observed in the β-sitosterol treated groups. β-sitosterol exhibited an IC50 value of 55 and 50 μg/ml against AChE and BChE respectively. Whereas, the activity of these enzymes were significantly low in FC and HC homogenates of transgenic animals. Molecular docking studies also support the binding of β-sitosterol with the target enzyme and further support the in vitro and in vivo results. In the antioxidant assays, the IC50 values were observed as 140, 120, and 280 μg/ml in the DPPH, ABTS and H2O2 assays respectively. The free radicals load in the brain tissues was significantly declined in the β-sitosterol treated animals as compared to the transgenic-saline treated groups. In the memory assessment and coordination tasks including SWM, Y-maze and balance beam tests, β-sitosterol treated transgenic animals showed gradual improvement in working memory, spontaneous alternation behavior and motor coordination. These results conclude that β-sitosterol is a potential compound for the management of memory deficit disorders like AD.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                26 August 2019
                : 13
                : 3029-3036
                [1 ]Department of Chemistry, University of Malakand , Dir Lower, Chakdara, KPK 18800, Pakistan
                [2 ]Department of Biotechnology, University of Malakand , Dir Lower, Chakdara, KPK 18800, Pakistan
                [3 ]Department of Pharmacy, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology , Peshawar, KPK 25000, Pakistan
                [4 ]Medicinal, Aromatic and Poisonous Plants Research Center (MAPRC), College of Pharmacy, King Saud University , Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
                [5 ]Phytochemistry Department, National Research Centre , Giza, Egypt
                [6 ]Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University , Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Mohammad ZahoorDepartment of Chemistry, University of Malakand Chakdara , Dir Lower, KPK18800, PakistanEmail mohammadzahoorus@yahoo.com
                Muhammad Umar Khayam SahibzadaDepartment of Pharmacy, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology , Peshawar, KPK25000, PakistanEmail umar.sahibzada@gmail.com
                © 2019 Ul Bari et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 26, Pages: 8
                Original Research


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