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      Silicon and salicylic acid confer high-pH stress tolerance in tomato seedlings

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          Abstract

          Alkalinity is a known threat to crop plant growth and production, yet the role of exogenous silicon (Si) and salicylic acid (SA) application has been largely unexplored. Here, we sought to understand the beneficial impacts of Si and SA on tomato seedlings during high-pH (9.0) stress. Results showed that Si- and SA-treated plants displayed higher biomass, chlorophyll contents, relative leaf water and better root system than none-treated plants under alkaline conditions. Both Si and SA counteracted the alkaline stress-induced oxidative damage by lowering the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. The major antioxidant defence enzyme activities were largely stimulated by Si and SA, and these treatments caused significantly increased K + and lowered Na + concentrations in shoot and root under stress. Moreover, Si and SA treatments modulated endogenous SA levels and dramatically decreased abscisic acid levels in both shoot and root. Additionally, key genes involved in Si uptake, SA biosynthesis, the antioxidant defence system and rhizosphere acidification were up-regulated in Si and SA treatments under alkaline conditions. These results demonstrate that Si and SA play critical roles in improving alkaline stress tolerance in tomato seedlings, by modifying the endogenous Na + and K + contents, regulating oxidative damage and key genes and modulating endogenous hormone levels. These findings will help to broaden our understanding regarding the physiological and molecular mechanisms associated with the alkaline soil tolerance in plants.

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          Most cited references 92

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          Isochorismate synthase is required to synthesize salicylic acid for plant defence.

          Salicylic acid (SA) mediates plant defences against pathogens, accumulating in both infected and distal leaves in response to pathogen attack. Pathogenesis-related gene expression and the synthesis of defensive compounds associated with both local and systemic acquired resistance (LAR and SAR) in plants require SA. In Arabidopsis, exogenous application of SA suffices to establish SAR, resulting in enhanced resistance to a variety of pathogens. However, despite its importance in plant defence against pathogens, SA biosynthesis is not well defined. Previous work has suggested that plants synthesize SA from phenylalanine; however, SA could still be produced when this pathway was inhibited, and the specific activity of radiolabelled SA in feeding experiments was often lower than expected. Some bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa synthesize SA using isochorismate synthase (ICS) and pyruvate lyase. Here we show, by cloning and characterizing an Arabidopsis defence-related gene (SID2) defined by mutation, that SA is synthesized from chorismate by means of ICS, and that SA made by this pathway is required for LAR and SAR responses.
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            Plant salt tolerance

             Jian-Kang Zhu (2001)
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              SILICON.

              Silicon is present in plants in amounts equivalent to those of such macronutrient elements as calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus, and in grasses often at higher levels than any other inorganic constituent. Yet except for certain algae, including prominently the diatoms, and the Equisetaceae (horsetails or scouring rushes), it is not considered an essential element for plants. As a result it is routinely omitted from formulations of culture solutions and considered a nonentity in much of plant physiological research. But silicon-deprived plants grown in conventional nutrient solutions to which silicon has not been added are in many ways experimental artifacts. They are often structurally weaker than silicon-replete plants, abnormal in growth, development, viability, and reproduction, more susceptible to such abiotic stresses as metal toxicities, and easier prey to disease organisms and to herbivores ranging from phytophagous insects to mammals. Many of these same conditions afflict plants in silicon-poor soils-and there are such. Taken together, the evidence is overwhelming that silicon should be included among the elements having a major bearing on plant life.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                aharrasi@unizwa.edu.om
                ijlee@knu.ac.kr
                latifepm78@yahoo.co.uk
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                24 December 2019
                24 December 2019
                2019
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.444752.4, Natural and Medical Sciences Research Center, , University of Nizwa, ; Nizwa, 616 Oman
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7304, GRID grid.1010.0, Plant Transport and Signalling Lab, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, , University of Adelaide, ; Glen Osmond, SA 5064 Australia
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0470 5905, GRID grid.31501.36, School of Biological Sciences, , Seoul National University, ; Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0661 1556, GRID grid.258803.4, School of Applied Biosciences, , Kyungpook National University, ; Daegu, Republic of Korea
                Article
                55651
                10.1038/s41598-019-55651-4
                6930214
                31874969
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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                biogeochemistry, physiology, ecology, environmental sciences

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