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      Antioxidant Supplementation in Renal Replacement Therapy Patients: Is There Evidence?

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          The disruption of balance between production of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant systems in favor of the oxidants is termed oxidative stress (OS). To counteract the damaging effects of prooxidant free radicals, all aerobic organisms have antioxidant defense mechanisms that are aimed at neutralizing the circulating oxidants and repair the resulting injuries. Antioxidants are either endogenous (the natural defense mechanisms produced by the human body) or exogenous, found in supplements and foods. OS is present at the early stages of chronic kidney disease, augments progressively with renal function deterioration, and is further exacerbated by renal replacement therapy. End-stage renal disease patients, on hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD), suffer from accelerated OS, which has been associated with increased risk for mortality and cardiovascular disease. During HD sessions, the bioincompatibility of dialyzers and dialysate trigger activation of white blood cells and formation of free radicals, while a significant loss of antioxidants is also present. In PD, the bioincompatibility of solutions, including high osmolality, elevated lactate levels, low pH, and accumulation of advanced glycation end-products trigger formation of prooxidants, while there is significant loss of vitamins in the ultrafiltrate. A number of exogenous antioxidants have been suggested to ameliorate OS in dialysis patients. Vitamins B, C, D, and E, coenzyme Q10, L-carnitine, a-lipoic acid, curcumin, green tea, flavonoids, polyphenols, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, statins, trace elements, and N-acetylcysteine have been studied as exogenous antioxidant supplements in both PD and HD patients.

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          Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men.

          The oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins increases their incorporation into the arterial intima, an essential step in atherogenesis. Although dietary antioxidants, such as vitamin C, carotene, and vitamin E, have been hypothesized to prevent coronary heart disease, prospective epidemiologic data are sparse. In 1986, 39,910 U.S. male health professionals 40 to 75 years of age who were free of diagnosed coronary heart disease, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia completed detailed dietary questionnaires that assessed their usual intake of vitamin C, carotene, and vitamin E in addition to other nutrients. During four years of follow-up, we documented 667 cases of coronary disease. After controlling for age and several coronary risk factors, we observed a lower risk of coronary disease among men with higher intakes of vitamin E (P for trend = 0.003). For men consuming more than 60 IU per day of vitamin E, the multivariate relative risk was 0.64 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.49 to 0.83) as compared with those consuming less than 7.5 IU per day. As compared with men who did not take vitamin E supplements, men who took at least 100 IU per day for at least two years had a multivariate relative risk of coronary disease of 0.63 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.47 to 0.84). Carotene intake was not associated with a lower risk of coronary disease among those who had never smoked, but it was inversely associated with the risk among current smokers (relative risk, 0.30; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.11 to 0.82) and former smokers (relative risk, 0.60; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.38 to 0.94). In contrast, a high intake of vitamin C was not associated with a lower risk of coronary disease. These data do not prove a causal relation, but they provide evidence of an association between a high intake of vitamin E and a lower risk of coronary heart disease in men. Public policy recommendations with regard to the use of vitamin E supplements should await the results of additional studies.
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            Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in women.

            Interest in the antioxidant vitamin E as a possible protective nutrient against coronary disease has intensified with the recognition that oxidized low-density lipoprotein may be involved in atherogenesis. In 1980, 87,245 female nurses 34 to 59 years of age who were free of diagnosed cardiovascular disease and cancer completed dietary questionnaires that assessed their consumption of a wide range of nutrients, including vitamin E. During follow-up of up to eight years (679,485 person-years) that was 97 percent complete, we documented 552 cases of major coronary disease (437 nonfatal myocardial infarctions and 115 deaths due to coronary disease). As compared with women in the lowest fifth of the cohort with respect to vitamin E intake, those in the top fifth had a relative risk of major coronary disease of 0.66 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.50 to 0.87) after adjustment for age and smoking. Further adjustment for a variety of other coronary risk factors and nutrients, including other antioxidants, had little effect on the results. Most of the variability in intake and reduction in risk was attributable to vitamin E consumed as supplements. Women who took vitamin E supplements for short periods had little apparent benefit, but those who took them for more than two years had a relative risk of major coronary disease of 0.59 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.38 to 0.91) after adjustment for age, smoking status, risk factors for coronary disease, and use of other antioxidant nutrients (including multi-vitamins). Although these prospective data do not prove a cause-and-effect relation, they suggest that among middle-aged women the use of vitamin E supplements is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Randomized trials of vitamin E in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary disease are being conducted; public policy recommendations about the widespread use of vitamin E should await the results of these trials.
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              Oxidative stress is progressively enhanced with advancing stages of CKD.

              Oxidative stress appears to have a central role in the pathophysiological process of uremia and its complications, including cardiovascular disease. However, there is little evidence to suggest how early oxidative stress starts developing during the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study is to assess oxidative stress activity in a cross-sectional study of patients with CKD stages 1 to 4. Eighty-seven steady patients (47 men, 40 women) with a median age of 62 years (range, 28 to 84 years) and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 57 mL/min (0.95 mL/s) were studied. Levels of plasma 8-isoprostanes (8-epiPGF2a) and serum total antioxidant status (TAS) were used as markers of oxidative stress. 8-epiPGF2a levels were determined by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, whereas a chromatometric method was used to determine TAS. Plasma 8-epiPGF2a levels increased significantly as CKD stages advanced (P < 0.001). There was a highly significant inverse correlation between 8-epiPGF2a level and GFR (P < 0.01). Serum TAS levels also increased in a similar fashion (P < 0.009) and showed a significant inverse correlation with GFR (P < 0.01). 8-epiPGF2a and TAS levels showed a positive correlation (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that the most significant predictor variable for 8-epiPGF2a level was eGFR, whereas the association between eGFR and TAS was affected strongly by confounding variables, mainly uric acid level. Oxidative stress appears to increase as CKD progresses and correlates significantly with level of renal function. Increased TAS seems to be dependent on several confounding variables, including increased uric acid levels, and therefore does not seem to be a reliable method for assessing the antioxidant capacity of patients with CKD. These results suggest that larger studies using the correct markers to assess the timing and complex interplay of oxidative stress and other risk factors during the progression of CKD should be carried out.

                Author and article information

                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
                15 January 2019
                : 2019
                1Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, 1st Department of Internal Medicine, AHEPA Hospital, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
                2Department of Nephrology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece
                Author notes

                Guest Editor: Mansur A. Sandhu

                Copyright © 2019 Vassilios Liakopoulos et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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