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      A retrospective study on persistent pain after childbirth in the Netherlands

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          Abstract

          Reported prevalence rates of persistent postpartum pain (PPP) range from less than 1% to almost 20%. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of PPP in a Dutch cohort and to evaluate a possible causal role for specific risk factors on the development of chronic pain after childbirth. A questionnaire was sent to 960 postpartum women approximately 2 years after delivery. Primary outcome was pain that arose from childbirth at follow-up, and secondary outcomes included quality of life (QoL) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores. Tested risk factors included mode of labor analgesia, history of negative effect, history of chronic pain, delivery route, parity, and ethnicity. A total of 495 (51.6%) women participated. At a mean time of 2.3 postpartum years, 7.3% of women reported any pain and 6.1% reported significant pain related to the delivery. Compared to spontaneous delivery, cesarean delivery provided protection against persistent pain (odds ratio, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.01–0.63, P<0.05). None of the other risk factors, including remifentanil use for labor pain, were of influence on the prevalence of persistent pain. Women with PPP experienced greater negative effects and had lower QoL scores compared to women without pain. In this cohort of Dutch patients, PPP is a serious problem with a great impact on the physical and mental health of women.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Severity of acute pain after childbirth, but not type of delivery, predicts persistent pain and postpartum depression.

          Cesarean delivery rates continue to increase, and surgery is associated with chronic pain, often co-existing with depression. Also, acute pain in the days after surgery is a strong predictor of chronic pain. Here we tested if mode of delivery or acute pain played a role in persistent pain and depression after childbirth. In this multicenter, prospective, longitudinal cohort study, 1288 women hospitalized for cesarean or vaginal delivery were enrolled. Data were obtained from patient interviews and medical record review within 36 h postpartum, then via telephone interviews 8 weeks later to assess persistent pain and postpartum depressive symptoms. The impact of delivery mode on acute postpartum pain, persistent pain and depressive symptoms and their interrelationships was assessed using regression analysis with propensity adjustment. The prevalence of severe acute pain within 36 h postpartum was 10.9%, while persistent pain and depression at 8 weeks postpartum were 9.8% and 11.2%, respectively. Severity of acute postpartum pain, but not mode of delivery, was independently related to the risk of persistent postpartum pain and depression. Women with severe acute postpartum pain had a 2.5-fold increased risk of persistent pain and a 3.0-fold increased risk of postpartum depression compared to those with mild postpartum pain. In summary, cesarean delivery does not increase the risk of persistent pain and postpartum depression. In contrast, the severity of the acute pain response to childbirth predicts persistent morbidity, suggesting the need to more carefully address pain treatment in the days following childbirth.
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            Preoperative anxiety and catastrophizing: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association with chronic postsurgical pain.

            Anxiety and pain catastrophizing predict acute postoperative pain. However, it is not well established whether they also predict chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate whether high levels of preoperative anxiety or pain catastrophizing are associated with an increased risk of CPSP. Electronic search databases included PubMed and PsychINFO. Additional literature was obtained by reference tracking and expert consultation. Studies from 1958 until October 2010, investigating the association between preoperative anxiety or pain catastrophizing and CPSP in adult surgery patients, were assessed. The primary outcome was the presence of pain at least 3 months postoperatively. Twenty-nine studies were included; 14 instruments were used to assess anxiety or pain catastrophizing. Sixteen studies (55%) reported a statistically significant association between anxiety or pain catastrophizing and CPSP. The proportion of studies reporting a statistically significant association was 67% for studies of musculoskeletal surgery and 36% for other types of surgery. There was no association with study quality, but larger studies were more likely to report a statistically significant relationship. The overall pooled odds ratio, on the basis of 15 studies, ranged from 1.55 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-2.20) to 2.10 (95% confidence interval, 1.49-2.95). Pain catastrophizing might be of higher predictive utility compared with general anxiety or more specific pain-related anxiety. There is evidence that anxiety and catastrophizing play a role in the development of CPSP. We recommend that anxiety measures should be incorporated in future studies investigating the prediction and transition from acute to chronic postoperative pain.
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              Persistent pain after caesarean section and vaginal birth: a cohort study.

              Although persistent pain has been described to occur after various types of surgery, little is known about this entity following caesarean section or vaginal birth. We sought to examine the association between mode of delivery and development of persistent pain, as well as the nature and intensity of the pain. A questionnaire was sent to 600 consecutive Finnish-speaking women within one year of their giving birth. The survey recorded the women's health history, obstetric history, previous pain, details of the caesarean section or vaginal birth, and a description of their pain, if present. Persistent pain one year after delivery was significantly more common after caesarean section (42/229, 18%) than after vaginal birth (20/209, 10%: P=0.011, OR 2.1 with 95% CI 1.2-3.7). The persistent pain was mild in 55% of the patients in both groups, and intense or unbearable for four caesarean sections and six vaginal births. Persistent pain was significantly more common in women with previous pain (P=0.013), previous back pain (P=0.016), and any chronic disease (P=0.016). The women with persistent pain recalled significantly more pain on the day after caesarean section (P=0.004) and vaginal birth (P=0.001) than those who did not report persistent pain. Persistent pain is more common one year after a caesarean section than after vaginal birth. A history of previous pain and pain on the day after delivery correlated with persistent pain. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2016
                12 January 2016
                : 9
                : 1-8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
                [2 ]Department of Obstetrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
                [3 ]Department of Gynecology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Albert Dahan, Department of Anesthesiology, Leiden University Medical Center, P5-Q, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands, Tel +31 71 526 2301, Fax +31 71 526 6230, Email a.dahan@ 123456lumc.nl
                Article
                jpr-9-001
                10.2147/JPR.S96850
                4716743
                26834496
                © 2016 Bijl et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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