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      Differential Roles for Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) Receptor Type IB and IA in Differentiation and Specification of Mesenchymal Precursor Cells to Osteoblast and Adipocyte Lineages

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          Cumulative evidence indicates that osteoblasts and adipocytes share a common mesenchymal precursor and that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) can induce both osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation of this precursor. In the present study, we investigated the roles of BMP receptors in differentiation along these separate lineages using a well-characterized clonal cell line, 2T3, derived from the mouse calvariae. BMP-2 induced 2T3 cells to differentiate into mature osteoblasts or adipocytes depending upon culture conditions. To test the specific roles of the type IA and IB BMP receptor components, truncated and constitutively active type IA and IB BMP receptor cDNAs were stably expressed in these cells. Overexpression of truncated type IB BMP receptor (trBMPR-IB) in 2T3 cells completely blocked BMP-2–induced osteoblast differentiation and mineralized bone matrix formation. Expression of trBMPR-IB also blocked mRNA expression of the osteoblast specific transcription factor, Osf2/ Cbfa1, and the osteoblast differentiation-related genes, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OC). BMP-2–induced ALP activity could be rescued by transfection of wild-type (wt) BMPR-IB into 2T3 clones containing trBMPR-IB. Expression of a constitutively active BMPR-IB (caBMPR-IB) induced formation of mineralized bone matrix by 2T3 cells without addition of BMP-2. In contrast, overexpression of trBMPR-IA blocked adipocyte differentiation and expression of caBMPR-IA induced adipocyte formation in 2T3 cells. Expression of the adipocyte differentiation-related genes, adipsin and PPARγ, correlated with the distinct phenotypic changes found after overexpression of the appropriate mutant receptors. These results demonstrate that type IB and IA BMP receptors transmit different signals to bone-derived mesenchymal progenitors and play critical roles in both the specification and differentiation of osteoblasts and adipocytes.

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          Most cited references 52

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          Novel regulators of bone formation: molecular clones and activities.

           J Wozney,  R Kriz,  R Hewick (1988)
          Protein extracts derived from bone can initiate the process that begins with cartilage formation and ends in de novo bone formation. The critical components of this extract, termed bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), that direct cartilage and bone formation as well as the constitutive elements supplied by the animal during this process have long remained unclear. Amino acid sequence has been derived from a highly purified preparation of BMP from bovine bone. Now, human complementary DNA clones corresponding to three polypeptides present in this BMP preparation have been isolated, and expression of the recombinant human proteins have been obtained. Each of the three (BMP-1, BMP-2A, and BMP-3) appears to be independently capable of inducing the formation of cartilage in vivo. Two of the encoded proteins (BMP-2A and BMP-3) are new members of the TGF-beta supergene family, while the third, BMP-1, appears to be a novel regulatory molecule.
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            Bone morphogenetic proteins: multifunctional regulators of vertebrate development.

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              Bone morphogenetic protein-4 is required for mesoderm formation and patterning in the mouse.

              Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) is a member of the TGF-beta superfamily of polypeptide signaling molecules, closely related to BMP-2 and to Drosophila decapentaplegic (DPP). To elucidate the role of BMP-4 in mouse development the gene has been inactivated by homologous recombination in ES cells. Homozygous mutant Bmp-4tm1blh embryos die between 6.5 and 9.5 days p.c., with a variable phenotype. Most Bmp-4tm1blh embryos do not proceed beyond the egg cylinder stage, do not express the mesodermal marker T(Brachyury), and show little or no mesodermal differentiation. Some homozygous mutants develop to the head fold or beating heart/early somite stage or beyond. However, they are developmentally retarded and have truncated or disorganized posterior structures and a reduction in extraembryonic mesoderm, including blood islands. These results provide direct genetic evidence that BMP-4 is essential for several different processes in early mouse development, beginning with gastrulation and mesoderm formation. Moreover, in the presumed absence of zygotic ligand, it appears that homozygous mutants can be rescued partially by related proteins or by maternal BMP-4.

                Author and article information

                J Cell Biol
                The Journal of Cell Biology
                The Rockefeller University Press
                13 July 1998
                : 142
                : 1
                : 295-305
                [* ]Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78284; []Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030; and [§ ]Genetics Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140

                Cell biology

                2t3 cells, bmp signaling, commitment, mineralization, osf2/cbfal


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