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      Imaging Algorithm-Based Real-Time Shear Wave Elastography Combined with Thyroglobulin Antibodies in Diagnosis of Thyroid Cancer

      1 , 2 , 1 , 3 , 4

      Scientific Programming

      Hindawi Limited

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          Abstract

          To analyze the effect of real-time shear wave elastography (SWE) optimized by mathematical algorithms combined with thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb) on the clinical diagnosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), a hybrid displacement estimation algorithm based on weighted phase separation and two-dimensional cross correlation was proposed. 102 patients with DTC were divided into a test group (TGAb-positive) and a control group (TGAb-negative). Real-time SWE based on hybrid displacement estimation algorithm was performed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was adopted to analyze the characteristics of real-time SWE and its combination with TGAb to detect the sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) of the malignant degree of thyroid cancer. The results showed that the preoperative thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TGAb), and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) of TGAb-positive patients were higher than those of the TGAb-negative group ( P < 0.05 ). The preoperative tumors of TGAb-positive patients were multifocal, and the tumor size was larger than that of the TGAb-negative patients ( P < 0.05 ). The maximum Young’s modulus Emax of TGAb-positive patients was greater than that of TGAb-negative group ( P < 0.05 ). In addition, there was a very significant positive correlation between the patient’s TGAb level and Emax of Young’s modulus ( P < 0.001 ). The sensitivity, specificity, and AUC of the joint detection of real-time SWE Emax and TGAb for the malignant degree of thyroid cancer were significantly greater than those of the single real-time SWE and TGAb, and the difference was substantial ( P < 0.05 ). In short, joint detection of real-time SWE based on hybrid displacement estimation algorithm combined with TGAb had high sensitivity, specificity, and AUC for the diagnosis of DTC, which was suitable for clinical application.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Diagnostic potential of real-time elastography (RTE) and shear wave elastography (SWE) to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid nodules

          Abstract Background: Real-time elastography (RTE) and shear wave elastography (SWE) are noninvasive and easily available imaging techniques that measure the tissue strain, and it has been reported that the sensitivity and the specificity of elastography were better in differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid nodules than conventional technologies. Methods: Relevant articles were searched in multiple databases; the comparison of elasticity index (EI) was conducted with the Review Manager 5.0. Forest plots of the sensitivity and specificity and SROC curve of RTE and SWE were performed with STATA 10.0 software. In addition, sensitivity analysis and bias analysis of the studies were conducted to examine the quality of articles; and to estimate possible publication bias, funnel plot was used and the Egger test was conducted. Results: Finally 22 articles which eventually satisfied the inclusion criteria were included in this study. After eliminating the inefficient, benign and malignant nodules were 2106 and 613, respectively. The meta-analysis suggested that the difference of EI between benign and malignant nodules was statistically significant (SMD = 2.11, 95% CI [1.67, 2.55], P < .00001). The overall sensitivities of RTE and SWE were roughly comparable, whereas the difference of specificities between these 2 methods was statistically significant. In addition, statistically significant difference of AUC between RTE and SWE was observed between RTE and SWE (P < .01). Conclusion: The specificity of RTE was statistically higher than that of SWE; which suggests that compared with SWE, RTE may be more accurate on differentiating benign and malignant thyroid nodules.
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            Focal Lymphocytic Thyroiditis Nodules Share the Features of Papillary Thyroid Cancer on Ultrasound

            Purpose It is often difficult to discriminate focal lymphocytic thyroiditis (FLT) or adenomatous hyperplasia (AH) from thyroid cancer if they both have suspicious ultrasound (US) findings. We aimed to make a predictive model of FLT from papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in suspicious nodules with benign cytologic results. Materials and Methods We evaluated 214 patients who had undergone fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and had shown thyroid nodules with suspicious US features. PTC was confirmed by surgical pathology. FLT and AH were confirmed through more than two separate FNABs. Clinical and biochemical findings, as well as US features, were evaluated. Results Of 214 patients, 100 patients were diagnosed with PTC, 55 patients with FLT, and 59 patients with AH. The proportion of elevated thyrotropin (TSH) levels (p=0.014) and thyroglobulin antibody (Tg-Ab) or thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) positivity (p<0.001) in the FLT group was significantly higher than that in the PTC group. Regarding US features, absence of calcification (p=0.006) and "diffuse thyroid disease" (DTD) pattern on US (p<0.001) were frequently seen in the FLT group. On multivariate analysis, Tg-Ab positivity, presence of a DTD pattern on US, and absence of calcification in nodules were associated with FLT with the best specificity of 99% and positive predictive value of 96%. In contrast, a taller than wide shape of nodules was the only variable significant for differentiating AH from PTC. Conclusion Suspicious thyroid nodules with cytologic benign results could be followed up with US rather than repeat FNAB, if patients exhibit Tg-Ab positivity, no calcifications in nodules, and a DTD pattern on US.
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              Prospective Evaluation of Semiquantitative Strain Ratio and Quantitative 2D Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) in Association with TIRADS Classification for Thyroid Nodule Characterization.

               To evaluate the diagnostic performance of strain ratio elastography (SRE) and shear wave elastography (SWE) alone and in combination with Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS) classification parameters to improve differentiation between benign and malignant thyroid nodules.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Scientific Programming
                Scientific Programming
                Hindawi Limited
                1875-919X
                1058-9244
                July 26 2021
                July 26 2021
                : 2021
                : 1-9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Ultrasonography, The First Affiliate Hospital of Qiqihar Medical College, Qiqihar 161041, Heilongjiang, China
                [2 ]Department of Price Division, The First Affiliate Hospital of Qiqihar Medical College, Qiqihar 161041, Heilongjiang, China
                [3 ]Department of Nuclear Medicine, The First Affiliate Hospital of Qiqihar Medical College, Qiqihar 161041, Heilongjiang, China
                [4 ]Department of Nuclear Medicine Department, The First Affiliate Hospital of Qiqihar Medical College, Qiqihar 161041, Heilongjiang, China
                Article
                10.1155/2021/7189334
                7824e2b6-ce1e-4a85-9f60-0a48d37f786a
                © 2021

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