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      Clinical practice guideline management of blood borne viruses within the haemodialysis unit

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          Some people who are receiving dialysis treatment have virus infection such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C and/or HIV that is present in their blood. These infections can be transmitted to other patients if blood is contaminated by the blood of another with a viral infection. Haemodialysis is performed by passing blood from a patient through a dialysis machine, and multiple patients receive dialysis within a dialysis unit. Therefore, there is a risk that these viruses may be transmitted around the dialysis session. This documents sets out recommendations for minimising this risk.

          There are sections describing how machines and equipment should be cleaned between patients. There are also recommendations for dialysing patients with hepatitis B away from patients who do not have hepatitis B. Patients should be immunised against hepatitis B, ideally before starting dialysis if this is possible. There are guidelines on how and when to do this, for checking whether immunisation is effective, and for administering booster doses of vaccine. Finally there is a section on the measures that should be taken if a patient receiving dialysis is identified as having a new infection of hepatitis B, hepatitis C or HIV.

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          Most cited references 106

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          Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C.

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            Patterns of hepatitis C prevalence and seroconversion in hemodialysis units from three continents: the DOPPS.

            Hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a problem within hemodialysis units. This study measures HCV prevalence and seroconversion rates across seven countries and investigates associations with facility-level practice patterns. The study sample was from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS), a prospective, observational study of adult hemodialysis patients randomly selected from 308 representative dialysis facilities in France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Logistic regression was used to model odds of HCV prevalence, and Cox regression was used to model time from study entry to HCV seroconversion. Mean HCV facility prevalence was 13.5% and varied among countries from 2.6% to 22.9%. Increased HCV prevalence was associated with longer time on dialysis, male gender, black race, diabetes, hepatitis B (HBV) infection, prior renal transplant, and alcohol or substance abuse in the previous 12 months. Approximately half of the facilities (55.6%) had no seroconversions during the study period. HCV seroconversion was associated with longer time on dialysis, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), HBV infection, and recurrent cellulitis or gangrene. An increase in highly trained staff was associated with lower HCV prevalence (OR = 0.93 per 10% increase, P= 0.003) and risk of seroconversion (RR = 0.92, P= 0.07). Seroconversion was associated with an increase in facility HCV prevalence (RR = 1.36, P < 0.0001), but not with isolation of HCV-infected patients (RR = 1.01, P= 0.99). There are differences in HCV prevalence and rate of seroconversion at the country and the hemodialysis facility level. The observed variation suggests opportunities for improved HCV outcomes.
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              National surveillance of dialysis-associated diseases in the United States, 2002.

              In December 2002, all U.S. chronic hemodialysis centers were surveyed regarding selected patient care practices and dialysis-associated diseases. The results were compared with similar surveys conducted in previous years. In 2002, 85% of hemodialysis centers were free-standing and 81% operated for profit; the proportion of centers operating for profit has increased each year since 1985. During 1995-2002, the percentage of patients who received dialysis through central catheters increased from 13% to 26%; this trend is worrisome, as infections and antimicrobial use are higher among patients receiving dialysis through catheters. However, during the same period, the percentage of patients receiving dialysis through fistulas increased from 22% to 33%. The percentage of centers reporting one or more patients infected or colonized with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) increased from 12% in 1995 to 30% in 2002. During 1997-2002, the percentage of patients vaccinated against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection increased from 47% to 56% and the percentage of staff vaccinated increased from 87% to 90%. In 2002, routine testing for antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) was performed on patients at 64% of centers; anti-HCV was found in 7.8% of patients. In 2001, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) published Recommendations for Preventing Transmission of Infections among Chronic Hemodialysis Patients. Centers were surveyed regarding their awareness of the recommendations and about a variety of infection control practices. In general, the incidence of HBV and HCV was not substantially different for the infection control practices evaluated, including where staff obtain clean supplies for patient treatment, reuse of unused and unopened supplies, and practices for changing external transducer filters/protectors. However, in 2002, the incidence of HBV infection was higher among patients in centers where injectable medications were prepared on a medication cart or medication area located in the treatment area compared to a dedicated medication room. Also, those centers that used a disposable container versus a nondisposable container for priming the dialyzer had a significantly lower incidence of HCV.

                Author and article information

                BMC Nephrol
                BMC Nephrol
                BMC Nephrology
                BioMed Central (London )
                28 October 2019
                28 October 2019
                : 20
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9965 1030, GRID grid.415967.8, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, ; Leeds, UK
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9422 8284, GRID grid.31410.37, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, ; Sheffield, UK
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0581 2008, GRID grid.451052.7, Guy’s and St. Thomas’ NHS Trust, ; London, UK
                [4 ]Norwich and Norfolk University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Norwich, UK
                [5 ]Patient Representative, c/o The Renal Association, Bristol, UK
                © The Author(s). 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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