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      Mortality and Associated Risk Factors in Dialysis Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

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          Background/Aims: Although dialysis patients have a higher risk of morbidity and mortality related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) than the general population, the mortality and associated risk factors in Asian dialysis patients with CVD have not been well examined. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, mortality and risk factors were investigated in 591 dialysis patients who were recruited from two dialysis centers from May 1, 2009 to May 1, 2014. The Cox proportional hazards regression assessed adjusted differences in mortality risk. A multivariate analysis was also performed, comparing the CVD and non-CVD groups. Results: A total of 591 patients were enrolled in this study (mean age, 52.05 ± 16.46 years [SD]; 61.8% men; 20.8% with CVD), with a median follow-up of 21.9 (maximum, 72) months. The cumulative hazard of mortality was significantly higher in CVD patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.835; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.023-3.293; P=0.042) than in their non-CVD counterparts after adjusting for various confounders. On multivariate Cox analysis, stroke (HR, 4.574; 95% CI, 2.149-9.736; P<0.001) was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in the CVD group. In the non-CVD group, diabetes mellitus (HR, 2.974; 95% CI, 1.560-5.668; P=0.001) and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive lipoprotein (hs-CRP) (HR, 1.017; 95% CI, 1.005-1.030; P=0.005) were independent predictors of all-cause mortality. Conclusion: All-cause mortality was significantly higher in the CVD group than in the non-CVD group. Stroke is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in dialysis patients with CVD. These findings warrant further studies into preventive and interventional strategies.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Warfarin use associates with increased risk for stroke in hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation.

          Use of warfarin, clopidogrel, or aspirin associates with mortality among patients with ESRD, but the risk-benefit ratio may depend on underlying comorbidities. Here, we investigated the association between these medications and new stroke, mortality, and hospitalization in a retrospective cohort analysis of 1671 incident hemodialysis patients with preexisting atrial fibrillation. We followed patient outcomes from the time of initiation of dialysis for an average of 1.6 yr. Compared with nonuse, warfarin use associated with a significantly increased risk for new stroke (hazard ratio 1.93; 95% confidence interval 1.29 to 2.90); clopidogrel or aspirin use did not associate with increased risk for new stroke. Analysis using international normalized ratio (INR) suggested a dose-response relationship between the degree of anticoagulation and new stroke in patients on warfarin (P = 0.02 for trend). Warfarin users who received no INR monitoring in the first 90 d of dialysis had the highest risk for stroke compared with nonusers (hazard ratio 2.79; 95% confidence interval 1.65 to 4.70). Warfarin use did not associate with statistically significant increases in all-cause mortality or hospitalization. In conclusion, warfarin use among patients with both ESRD and atrial fibrillation associates with an increased risk for stroke. The risk is greatest in warfarin users who do not receive in-facility INR monitoring.
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            Kidney dysfunction as a risk factor for first symptomatic stroke events in a general Japanese population--the Ohasama study.

            Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) has been shown to be a risk factor for mortality as well as for morbidity such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. However, in the context of CVD events, there is a difference in the incidence of cardiac and stroke events between Western and Asian populations. Although a high prevalence of stroke is a characteristic feature in Japanese populations, it is unclear whether CKD constitutes a risk for stroke events. To clarify this issue, we estimated creatinine clearance and obtained dipstick tests from spot-urine samples in 1977 subjects (mean 62.9-years-old, men/women: 731/1246) from a general Japanese population. First symptomatic stroke events and all-cause mortality were analysed according to stratification of kidney function and by positive tests for macroalbuminuria using a Cox proportional hazards regression model adjusted for possible confounding factors. During the observation period (mean 7.76 years), we recorded 112 events of first symptomatic stroke and 187 deaths (58 cases due to CVD). After adjustment for all variables, we found that increases in relative hazard (RH) for the first symptomatic stroke events were associated with decreasing kidney function (RH, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.24-7.84 in Ccr 70 ml/min) and with the presence of macroalbuminuria (RH, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.80-2.41). Decreased kidney function increased the risk of first symptomatic stroke events in a general Japanese population. The high prevalence of stroke in this population prompts the need for greater public awareness about risks for CKD.
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              Impact of dialysis modality on survival of new ESRD patients with congestive heart failure in the United States.

              It is hypothesized, but not proven, that peritoneal dialysis might be the optimal treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with established congestive heart failure (CHF) through better volume regulation compared with hemodialysis. National incidence data on 107,922 new ESRD patients from the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Medical Evidence Form were used to test the hypothesis that peritoneal dialysis was superior to hemodialysis in prolonging survival of patients with CHF. Nonproportional Cox regression models evaluated the relative hazard of death for patients with and without CHF by dialysis modality using primarily the intent-to-treat but also the as-treated approach. Diabetics and nondiabetics were analyzed separately. The overall prevalence of CHF was 33% at ESRD initiation. There were 27,149 deaths (25.2%), 5423 transplants (5%), and 3753 (3.5%) patients lost to follow-up over 2 years. Adjusted mortality risks were significantly higher for patients with CHF treated with peritoneal dialysis than hemodialysis [diabetics, relative risk (RR) = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20 to 1.41; nondiabetics, RR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.35]. Among patients without CHF, adjusted mortality risk were higher only for diabetic patients treated with peritoneal dialysis compared with hemodialysis (RR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.21) while nondiabetics had similar survival on peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis (RR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.04). New ESRD patients with a clinical history of CHF experienced poorer survival when treated with peritoneal dialysis compared with hemodialysis. These data suggest that peritoneal dialysis may not be the optimal choice for new ESRD patients with CHF perhaps through impaired volume regulation and worsening cardiomyopathy.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                July 2016
                20 July 2016
                : 41
                : 4
                : 479-487
                aDepartment of Nephrology, General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command of PLA; bGraduate School of Southern Medical University; cDepartment of Comprehensive Evaluation, Medical Association of Guangdong Province; dDepartment of Nephrology, Guangzhou First People's Hospital, Guangzhou, China
                443449 Kidney Blood Press Res 2016;41:479-487
                © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, References: 31, Pages: 9
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