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      Effects of Choir Singing or Listening on Secretory Immunoglobulin A, Cortisol, and Emotional State

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      Journal of Behavioral Medicine

      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Abstract

          The present study investigates the effects of choir music on secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA), cortisol, and emotional states in members of a mixed amateur choir. Subjects participated in two conditions during two rehearsals 1 week apart, namely singing versus listening to choral music. Saliva samples and subjective measures of affect were taken both before each session and 60 min later. Repeated measure analyses of variance were conducted for positive and negative affect scores, S-IgA, and cortisol. Results indicate several significant effects. In particular, singing leads to increases in positive affect and S-IgA, while negative affect is reduced. Listening to choral music leads to an increase in negative affect, and decreases in levels of cortisol. These results suggest that choir singing positively influences both emotional affect and immune competence. The observation that subjective and physiological responses differed between listening and singing conditions invites further investigation of task factors.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales

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            Salivary cortisol in psychoneuroendocrine research: Recent developments and applications

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              Evidence that secretory IgA antibody is associated with daily mood.

              In this study, we examined the secretory immune system, the body's first line of defense against invading organisms, and its relation to daily fluctuations of mood. Specifically, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) was studied. Unlike other psychoimmunity studies that examined all sIgA protein regardless of specificity to invading organisms, ours examined an antigen-specific sIgA response to the oral administration of a harmless protein (rabbit albumin) and monitored the antibody produced in response to the protein. Dental students recorded their daily mood thrice weekly for 8 1/3 weeks, and parotid saliva was obtained from subjects during these contacts. Using a within-subjects analyses strategy, we found that antibody response was lower on days with high negative mood relative to days with lower negative mood, and conversely, sIgA antibody response was higher on days with high positive mood relative to days with lower positive mood. Results from total sIgA protein were in the opposite direction, although not significantly so. These results extend our knowledge of immunological changes and mood, and they suggest that minor life events' role in health may be mediated by the secretory immune system.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Behavioral Medicine
                J Behav Med
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0160-7715
                1573-3521
                December 2004
                December 2004
                : 27
                : 6
                : 623-635
                Article
                10.1007/s10865-004-0006-9
                15669447
                © 2004

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