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      Clinical and Histopathological Features of Corneal Primary Acquired Melanosis and Melanoma

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          Abstract

          Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the clinical and pathologic features of corneal primary acquired melanosis (PAM) and melanoma. Methods: We describe 3 cases in total: two cases of corneal melanomas and 1 case of corneal PAM. The eyes were processed routinely for histopathological examination. Clinical histories, treatments, and outcomes were reviewed. Results: Corneal melanomas arose from recurrence of conjunctival melanoma or conjunctival PAM at the limbus. One patient had a recurrence after excision of a limbal melanoma, another had a de novo corneal melanoma, and the last patient had corneal PAM in the setting of conjunctival PAM with atypia. All lesions were excised with adjuvant alcohol debridement and cryotherapy with no recurrence ranging from 1 week to 8 years. Conclusions: Corneal melanomas arise at the limbus from corneal PAM or conjunctival atypia. They can appear after excisional removal of a conjunctival melanoma. Surgical excision with alcohol debridement and adjuvant cryotherapy is successful.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Conjunctival melanoma: risk factors for recurrence, exenteration, metastasis, and death in 150 consecutive patients.

          To identify the risk factors of conjunctival malignant melanoma that predict local tumor recurrence, orbital exenteration, distant metastasis, and tumor-related mortality. The clinical parameters of the patient, tumor, and treatment were analyzed in a nonrandomized fashion for their relation to 4 main outcome measures using Cox proportional hazards regression models. One hundred fifty consecutive patients. Local tumor recurrence, orbital exenteration, distant metastasis, and death from conjunctival melanoma. The Kaplan-Meier estimates of local tumor recurrence was 26% at 5 years, 51% at 10 years, and 65% at 15 years. The mean number of recurrences per patient was 1 (median, 0 recurrences). There was no recurrence in 98 patients (65%), 1 recurrence in 28 patients (19%), 2 recurrences in 11 patients (7%), 3 recurrences in 5 patients (3%), and 4 or more recurrences in 8 patients (5%). Using multivariate analysis, the factors correlated with local tumor recurrence were melanoma location (not touching the limbus) (P =.01) and pathological tumor margins (lateral margin involved) (P =.02). Multivariate analysis for features correlated with ultimate exenteration included initial visual acuity (20/40 OU or worse) (P<. 001), melanoma color red (P =.01), and melanoma location (not touching the limbus) (P =.02). Tumor metastasis was present in 16% of patients at 5 years, 26% of patients at 10 years, and 32% of patients at 15 years. Metastasis was first located in the regional lymph nodes in 17 cases, the brain in 4 cases, the liver in 3 cases, the lung in 2 cases, and was disseminated in 1 case. The risks for metastases using multivariate analysis included pathological tumor margins (lateral margin involved) (P =.002) and melanoma location (not touching limbus) (P =.04). Tumor-related death occurred in 7% patients at 5 years' follow-up and 13% at 8 years' follow-up. The risk factors for death using multivariate analysis included initial symptoms (lump) (P =.004) and pathologic findings (de novo melanoma without primary acquired melanosis) (P =.05). The technique of initial surgery was shown to be an important factor in preventing eventual tumor recurrence (P =.07), metastasis (P =.03), and death (P =.006) in the univariate analysis, but did not reach significance in the multivariate analysis. Conjunctival malignant melanoma is a potentially deadly tumor. In the present study, metastasis was detected in 26% of patients, and death occurred in 13% of patients at 10 years. Extralimbal melanoma and tumor involvement of the surgical margins were especially poor prognostic factors. Meticulous surgical planning using wide microsurgical excisional biopsy working with the "no touch" technique and supplemental alcohol corneal epitheliectomy and conjunctival cryotherapy is advised. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118:1497-1507
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            Tumors of the conjunctiva and cornea

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              Corneally displaced malignant conjunctival melanomas

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                OOP
                OOP
                10.1159/issn.2296-4657
                Ocular Oncology and Pathology
                S. Karger AG
                2296-4681
                2296-4657
                2021
                March 2021
                21 January 2021
                : 7
                : 2
                : 103-107
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
                bSchool of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
                cDepartment of Pathology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
                Author notes
                *Hans E. Grossniklaus, Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University, 1365 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322 (USA), ophtheg@emory.edu
                Article
                511596 Ocul Oncol Pathol 2021;7:103–107
                10.1159/000511596
                © 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Research Article

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