25
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Membrane Active Peptides and Their Biophysical Characterization

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          In the last 20 years, an increasing number of studies have been reported on membrane active peptides. These peptides exert their biological activity by interacting with the cell membrane, either to disrupt it and lead to cell lysis or to translocate through it to deliver cargos into the cell and reach their target. Membrane active peptides are attractive alternatives to currently used pharmaceuticals and the number of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and peptides designed for drug and gene delivery in the drug pipeline is increasing. Here, we focus on two most prominent classes of membrane active peptides; AMPs and cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). Antimicrobial peptides are a group of membrane active peptides that disrupt the membrane integrity or inhibit the cellular functions of bacteria, virus, and fungi. Cell penetrating peptides are another group of membrane active peptides that mainly function as cargo-carriers even though they may also show antimicrobial activity. Biophysical techniques shed light on peptide–membrane interactions at higher resolution due to the advances in optics, image processing, and computational resources. Structural investigation of membrane active peptides in the presence of the membrane provides important clues on the effect of the membrane environment on peptide conformations. Live imaging techniques allow examination of peptide action at a single cell or single molecule level. In addition to these experimental biophysical techniques, molecular dynamics simulations provide clues on the peptide–lipid interactions and dynamics of the cell entry process at atomic detail. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in experimental and computational investigation of membrane active peptides with particular emphasis on two amphipathic membrane active peptides, the AMP melittin and the CPP pVEC.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 361

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          In vivo protein transduction: delivery of a biologically active protein into the mouse.

          Delivery of therapeutic proteins into tissues and across the blood-brain barrier is severely limited by the size and biochemical properties of the proteins. Here it is shown that intraperitoneal injection of the 120-kilodalton beta-galactosidase protein, fused to the protein transduction domain from the human immunodeficiency virus TAT protein, results in delivery of the biologically active fusion protein to all tissues in mice, including the brain. These results open new possibilities for direct delivery of proteins into patients in the context of protein therapy, as well as for epigenetic experimentation with model organisms.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            The future of peptide-based drugs.

            The suite of currently used drugs can be divided into two categories - traditional 'small molecule' drugs with typical molecular weights of 5000 Da that are not orally bioavailable and need to be delivered via injection. Due to their small size, conventional small molecule drugs may suffer from reduced target selectivity that often ultimately manifests in human side-effects, whereas protein therapeutics tend to be exquisitely specific for their targets due to many more interactions with them, but this comes at a cost of low bioavailability, poor membrane permeability, and metabolic instability. The time has now come to reinvestigate new drug leads that fit between these two molecular weight extremes, with the goal of combining advantages of small molecules (cost, conformational restriction, membrane permeability, metabolic stability, oral bioavailability) with those of proteins (natural components, target specificity, high potency). This article uses selected examples of peptides to highlight the importance of peptide drugs, some potential new opportunities for their exploitation, and some difficult challenges ahead in this field. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Vaccination against HPV-16 oncoproteins for vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia.

              Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is a chronic disorder caused by high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV), most commonly HPV type 16 (HPV-16). Spontaneous regression occurs in less than 1.5% of patients, and the rate of recurrence after treatment is high. We investigated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a synthetic long-peptide vaccine in women with HPV-16-positive, high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. Twenty women with HPV-16-positive, grade 3 vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia were vaccinated three or four times with a mix of long peptides from the HPV-16 viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. The end points were clinical and HPV-16-specific T-cell responses. The most common adverse events were local swelling in 100% of the patients and fever in 64% of the patients; none of these events exceeded grade 2 of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events of the National Cancer Institute. At 3 months after the last vaccination, 12 of 20 patients (60%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 36 to 81) had clinical responses and reported relief of symptoms. Five women had complete regression of the lesions, and HPV-16 was no longer detectable in four of them. At 12 months of follow-up, 15 of 19 patients had clinical responses (79%; 95% CI, 54 to 94), with a complete response in 9 of 19 patients (47%; 95% CI, 24 to 71). The complete-response rate was maintained at 24 months of follow-up. All patients had vaccine-induced T-cell responses, and post hoc analyses suggested that patients with a complete response at 3 months had a significantly stronger interferon-gamma-associated proliferative CD4+ T-cell response and a broad response of CD8+ interferon-gamma T cells than did patients without a complete response. Clinical responses in women with HPV-16-positive, grade 3 vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia can be achieved by vaccination with a synthetic long-peptide vaccine against the HPV-16 oncoproteins E6 and E7. Complete responses appear to be correlated with induction of HPV-16-specific immunity. Copyright 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biomolecules
                Biomolecules
                biomolecules
                Biomolecules
                MDPI
                2218-273X
                22 August 2018
                September 2018
                : 8
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Bioengineering Department, Marmara University, Kadikoy, 34722 Istanbul, Turkey; gizemavci@ 123456gmail.com (F.G.A.); berna.akbulut@ 123456marmara.edu.tr (B.S.A.)
                [2 ]Chemical Engineering Department, Bogazici University, Bebek, 34342 Istanbul, Turkey
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: elif.ozkirimli@ 123456boun.edu.tr ; Tel.: +90-212-359-7471; Fax: +90-212-287-2460
                Article
                biomolecules-08-00077
                10.3390/biom8030077
                6164437
                30135402
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Comments

                Comment on this article