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      G-quadruplex-interacting compounds alter latent DNA replication and episomal persistence of KSHV

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          Abstract

          Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) establishes life-long latent infection by persisting as an extra-chromosomal episome in the infected cells and by maintaining its genome in dividing cells. KSHV achieves this by tethering its epigenome to the host chromosome by latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA), which binds in the terminal repeat (TR) region of the viral genome. Sequence analysis of the TR, a GC-rich DNA element, identified several potential Quadruplex G-Rich Sequences (QGRS). Since quadruplexes have the tendency to obstruct DNA replication, we used G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds to examine their effect on latent DNA replication and the persistence of viral episomes. Our results showed that these G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds led to the activation of dormant origins of DNA replication, with preferential bi-directional pausing of replications forks moving out of the TR region, implicating the role of the G-rich TR in the perturbation of episomal DNA replication. Over time, treatment with PhenDC3 showed a loss of viral episomes in the infected cells. Overall, these data show that G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds retard the progression of replication forks leading to a reduction in DNA replication and episomal maintenance. These results suggest a potential role for G-quadruplex stabilizers in the treatment of KSHV-associated diseases.

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          Most cited references 66

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          Identification of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.

          Representational difference analysis was used to isolate unique sequences present in more than 90 percent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) tissues obtained from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These sequences were not present in tissue DNA from non-AIDS patients, but were present in 15 percent of non-KS tissue DNA samples from AIDS patients. The sequences are homologous to, but distinct from, capsid and tegument protein genes of the Gammaherpesvirinae, herpesvirus saimiri and Epstein-Barr virus. These KS-associated herpesvirus-like (KSHV) sequences appear to define a new human herpesvirus.
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            Quadruplex DNA: sequence, topology and structure

            G-quadruplexes are higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from G-rich sequences that are built around tetrads of hydrogen-bonded guanine bases. Potential quadruplex sequences have been identified in G-rich eukaryotic telomeres, and more recently in non-telomeric genomic DNA, e.g. in nuclease-hypersensitive promoter regions. The natural role and biological validation of these structures is starting to be explored, and there is particular interest in them as targets for therapeutic intervention. This survey focuses on the folding and structural features on quadruplexes formed from telomeric and non-telomeric DNA sequences, and examines fundamental aspects of topology and the emerging relationships with sequence. Emphasis is placed on information from the high-resolution methods of X-ray crystallography and NMR, and their scope and current limitations are discussed. Such information, together with biological insights, will be important for the discovery of drugs targeting quadruplexes from particular genes.
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              Formation of parallel four-stranded complexes by guanine-rich motifs in DNA and its implications for meiosis.

               D Sen,  W Gilbert (1988)
              We have discovered that single-stranded DNA containing short guanine-rich motifs will self-associate at physiological salt concentrations to make four-stranded structures in which the strands run in parallel fashion. We believe these complexes are held together by guanines bonded to each other by Hoogsteen pairing. Such guanine-rich sequences occur in immunoglobulin switch regions, in gene promoters, and in chromosomal telomeres. We speculate that this self-recognition of guanine-rich motifs of DNA serves to bring together, and to zipper up in register, the four homologous chromatids during meiosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nucleic Acids Res
                Nucleic Acids Res
                nar
                nar
                Nucleic Acids Research
                Oxford University Press
                0305-1048
                1362-4962
                05 May 2016
                02 February 2016
                02 February 2016
                : 44
                : 8
                : 3675-3694
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Ch416, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
                [2 ]Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N Virginia Street, MS 320, Reno, NV 89557, USA
                [3 ]Department of Microbiology and the Tumor Virology Program of the Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, 201E Johnson Pavilion, 3610 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +1 775 682 6743; Fax: +1 775 327 2332; Email: scverma@ 123456medicine.nevada.edu
                Correspondence may also be addressed to Carl L. Schildkraut. Tel: +1 718 430 2097; Fax: +1 718 430 8574; Email: carl.schildkraut@ 123456einstein.yu.edu
                []These authors contributed equally to this work as first authors.
                Article
                10.1093/nar/gkw038
                4856979
                26837574
                © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@ 123456oup.com

                Page count
                Pages: 20
                Product
                Categories
                Genome Integrity, Repair and Replication
                Custom metadata
                05 May 2016

                Genetics

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