+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Pattern of Stress-Induced Hyperglycemia according to Type of Diabetes: A Predator Stress Model

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          We aimed to quantify stress-induced hyperglycemia and differentiate the glucose response between normal animals and those with diabetes. We also examined the pattern in glucose fluctuation induced by stress according to type of diabetes.


          To load psychological stress on animal models, we used a predator stress model by exposing rats to a cat for 60 minutes and measured glucose level from the beginning to the end of the test to monitor glucose fluctuation. We induced type 1 diabetes model (T1D) for ten Sprague-Dawley rats using streptozotocin and used five Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats as obese type 2 diabetes model (OT2D) and 10 Goto-Kakizaki rats as nonobese type 2 diabetes model (NOT2D). We performed the stress loading test in both the normal and diabetic states and compared patterns of glucose fluctuation among the three models. We classified the pattern of glucose fluctuation into A, B, and C types according to speed of change in glucose level.


          Increase in glucose, total amount of hyperglycemic exposure, time of stress-induced hyperglycemia, and speed of glucose increase were significantly increased in all models compared to the normal state. While the early increase in glucose after exposure to stress was higher in T1D and NOT2D, it was slower in OT2D. The rate of speed of the decrease in glucose level was highest in NOT2D and lowest in OT2D.


          The diabetic state was more vulnerable to stress compared to the normal state in all models, and the pattern of glucose fluctuation differed among the three types of diabetes. The study provides basic evidence for stress-induced hyperglycemia patterns and characteristics used for the management of diabetes patients.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 31

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Spontaneous long-term hyperglycemic rat with diabetic complications. Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) strain.

           T Natori,  K Kawano,  S Mori (1992)
          A spontaneously diabetic rat with polyuria, polydipsia, and mild obesity was discovered in 1984 in an outbred colony of Long-Evans rats, which had been purchased from Charles River Canada (St. Constant, Quebec, Canada) in 1982. A strain of rats developed from this rat by selective breeding has since been maintained at the Tokushima Research Institute (Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Tokushima, Japan) and named OLETF. The characteristic features of OLETF rats are 1) late onset of hyperglycemia (after 18 wk of age); 2) a chronic course of disease; 3) mild obesity; 4) inheritance by males; 5) hyperplastic foci of pancreatic islets; and 6) renal complication (nodular lesions). Histologically, the changes of pancreatic islets can be classified into three stages: 1) an early stage (6-20 wk of age) of cellular infiltration and degeneration; 2) a hyperplastic stage (20-40 wk of age); and 3) a final stage (at > 40 wk of age). These clinical and pathological features of disease in OLETF rats resemble those of human NIDDM.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Slow glucose removal rate and hyperinsulinemia precede the development of type II diabetes in the offspring of diabetic parents.

            To determine whether insulin resistance or insulin deficiency is primary in the pathogenesis of type II diabetes. Cohort analytic study of persons with normal glucose tolerance but with a high risk for developing type II diabetes (average follow-up time, 13 years). Outpatients had an intravenous glucose tolerance test and were contacted periodically to ascertain diagnoses of diabetes. One hundred and fifty-five normal offspring, ranging in age from 16 to 60 years, of two parents with type II diabetes and 186 normal control subjects in the same age range who had no family history of diabetes. Two phenotypic characteristics distinguished the offspring of diabetic parents from control subjects. They had slower glucose removal rates (Kg) (P less than 0.01) and higher insulin levels (fasting and during the second phase of insulin response to intravenous glucose; P less than 0.0001) than did control subjects, even after adjustment for differences in obesity. Sixteen percent of the offspring developed type II diabetes. Mean Kg at baseline was 1.7%/min among offspring who subsequently developed diabetes, 2.2%/min among offspring who remained nondiabetic, and 2.3%/min among control subjects. Corresponding means for first-phase insulin were 498, 354, and 373 pM, respectively, whereas second-phase insulin means were 329, 117, and 87 pM, respectively. In multivariate analysis, low Kg and high serum insulin levels independently increased the risk for developing diabetes among the offspring of diabetic parents. One to two decades before type II diabetes is diagnosed, reduced glucose clearance is already present. This reduced clearance is accompanied by compensatory hyperinsulinemia, not hypoinsulinemia, suggesting that the primary defect is in peripheral tissue response to insulin and glucose, not in the pancreatic beta cell.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Role of glucose and insulin resistance in development of type 2 diabetes mellitus: results of a 25-year follow-up study.

              Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterised by resistance of peripheral tissues to insulin and a relative deficiency of insulin secretion. To find out which is the earliest or primary determinant of disease, we used a minimum model of glucose disposal and insulin secretion based on intravenous glucose tolerance tests to estimate insulin sensitivity (SI), glucose effectiveness (ie, insulin-independent glucose removal rate, SG), and first-phase and second-phase beta-cell responsiveness in normoglycaemic offspring of couples who both had type 2 diabetes. 155 subjects from 86 families were followed-up for 6-25 years. More than 10 years before the development of diabetes, subjects who developed the disease had lower values of both SI (mean 3.2 [SD 2.4] vs 8.1 [6.7] 10(-3) I min-1 pmol-1 insulin; p < 0.0001) and SG (1.6 [0.9] vs 2.3 [1.2] 10(-2) min-1, p < 0.0001) than did those who remained normoglycaemic). For the subjects with both SI and SG below the group median, the cumulative incidence of type 2 diabetes during the 25 years was 76% (95% confidence interval 54-99). By contrast, no subject with both SI and SG above the median developed the disease. Subjects with low SI/high SG or high SI/low SG had intermediate risks. Insulin secretion, especially first phase, tended to be increased rather than decreased in this prediabetic phase and was appropriate for the level of insulin resistance. The development of type 2 diabetes is preceded by and predicted by defects in both insulin-dependent and insulin-independent glucose uptake; the defects are detectable when the patients are normoglycaemic and in most cases more than a decade before diagnosis of disease.

                Author and article information

                Diabetes Metab J
                Diabetes Metab J
                Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
                Korean Diabetes Association
                December 2013
                12 December 2013
                : 37
                : 6
                : 475-483
                Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Jae-Hyoung Cho. Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701, Korea. drhopper@
                Copyright © 2013 Korean Diabetes Association

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Article


                Comment on this article