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      Acute motor-sensory axonal polyneuropathy variant of Guillain–Barre syndrome complicating the recovery phase of coronavirus disease 2019 infection: a case report

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          The novel coronavirus, since its first identification in China, in December 2019, has shown remarkable heterogeneity in its clinical behavior. It has affected humans on every continent. Clinically, it has affected every organ system. The outcome has also been variable, with most of the older patients showing grave outcomes as compared with the younger individuals. Here we present a rare and severe variant of Guillain–Barre syndrome that complicated the disease in recovery phase.

          Case presentation

          A 60-year-old Afghan man, who had been recovering from symptoms related to novel coronavirus associated disease, presented with sudden onset of progressive muscle weakness and oxygen desaturation. Electrophysiological workup confirmed the diagnosis of Guillain–Barre syndrome, and early institution of intravenous immunoglobulin resulted in complete resolution.

          Conclusion

          Guillain–Barre syndrome has recently been reported in many patients diagnosed with novel coronavirus associated disease. While clinical suspicion is mandatory to guide towards an effective diagnostic workup, early diagnosis of this complication and timely institution of therapeutic interventions are indispensable and lifesaving.

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          Most cited references 24

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          The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak – an update on the status

          An acute respiratory disease, caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, previously known as 2019-nCoV), the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread throughout China and received worldwide attention. On 30 January 2020, World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the COVID-19 epidemic as a public health emergency of international concern. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2, since the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, marked the third introduction of a highly pathogenic and large-scale epidemic coronavirus into the human population in the twenty-first century. As of 1 March 2020, a total of 87,137 confirmed cases globally, 79,968 confirmed in China and 7169 outside of China, with 2977 deaths (3.4%) had been reported by WHO. Meanwhile, several independent research groups have identified that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to β-coronavirus, with highly identical genome to bat coronavirus, pointing to bat as the natural host. The novel coronavirus uses the same receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as that for SARS-CoV, and mainly spreads through the respiratory tract. Importantly, increasingly evidence showed sustained human-to-human transmission, along with many exported cases across the globe. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, cough, fatigue and a small population of patients appeared gastrointestinal infection symptoms. The elderly and people with underlying diseases are susceptible to infection and prone to serious outcomes, which may be associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and cytokine storm. Currently, there are few specific antiviral strategies, but several potent candidates of antivirals and repurposed drugs are under urgent investigation. In this review, we summarized the latest research progress of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical characteristics of COVID-19, and discussed the current treatment and scientific advancements to combat the epidemic novel coronavirus.
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            A Review of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19)

             Tanu Singhal (2020)
            There is a new public health crises threatening the world with the emergence and spread of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus originated in bats and was transmitted to humans through yet unknown intermediary animals in Wuhan, Hubei province, China in December 2019. There have been around 96,000 reported cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) and 3300 reported deaths to date (05/03/2020). The disease is transmitted by inhalation or contact with infected droplets and the incubation period ranges from 2 to 14 d. The symptoms are usually fever, cough, sore throat, breathlessness, fatigue, malaise among others. The disease is mild in most people; in some (usually the elderly and those with comorbidities), it may progress to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi organ dysfunction. Many people are asymptomatic. The case fatality rate is estimated to range from 2 to 3%. Diagnosis is by demonstration of the virus in respiratory secretions by special molecular tests. Common laboratory findings include normal/ low white cell counts with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). The computerized tomographic chest scan is usually abnormal even in those with no symptoms or mild disease. Treatment is essentially supportive; role of antiviral agents is yet to be established. Prevention entails home isolation of suspected cases and those with mild illnesses and strict infection control measures at hospitals that include contact and droplet precautions. The virus spreads faster than its two ancestors the SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), but has lower fatality. The global impact of this new epidemic is yet uncertain.
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              Guillain-Barré Syndrome outbreak associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case-control study.

              Between October, 2013, and April, 2014, French Polynesia experienced the largest Zika virus outbreak ever described at that time. During the same period, an increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome was reported, suggesting a possible association between Zika virus and Guillain-Barré syndrome. We aimed to assess the role of Zika virus and dengue virus infection in developing Guillain-Barré syndrome.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                ahmedmaseh.haidary@fmic.org.af
                Journal
                J Med Case Rep
                J Med Case Rep
                Journal of Medical Case Reports
                BioMed Central (London )
                1752-1947
                16 July 2021
                16 July 2021
                2021
                : 15
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, French medical Institute for Mothers and Children, Kabul, Afghanistan
                [2 ]Department of Medicine, Jumhoriat Hospital, Afghan Ministry of Health, Kabul, Afghanistan
                [3 ]Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, French Medical Institute for Mothers and Children, Kabul, Afghanistan
                [4 ]Department of Quality, French Medical Institute for Mothers and Children, Kabul, Afghanistan
                Article
                2988
                10.1186/s13256-021-02988-y
                8283095
                34271989
                7869ecec-33f9-43ce-a9d9-e74a8ace08e4
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

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                Case Report
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Medicine

                amsan, gbs, recovery phase, covid-19

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