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Large field-induced-strain at high temperature in ternary ferroelectric crystals

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      Abstract

      The new generation of ternary Pb(In 1/2Nb 1/2)O 3-Pb(Mg 1/3Nb 2/3)O 3-PbTiO 3 ferroelectric single crystals have potential applications in high power devices due to their surperior operational stability relative to the binary system. In this work, a reversible, large electric field induced strain of over 0.9% at room temperature, and in particular over 0.6% above 380 K was obtained. The polarization rotation path and the phase transition sequence of different compositions in these ternary systems have been determined with increasing electric field applied along [001] direction based on x-ray diffraction data. Thereafter, composition dependence of field-temperature phase diagrams were constructed, which provide compositional and thermal prospectus for the electromechanical properties. It was found the structural origin of the large stain, especially at higher temperature is the lattice parameters modulated by dual independent variables in composition of these ternary solid solution crystals.

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      Most cited references 17

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      Lead-free piezoceramics.

      Lead has recently been expelled from many commercial applications and materials (for example, from solder, glass and pottery glaze) owing to concerns regarding its toxicity. Lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics are high-performance piezoelectric materials, which are widely used in sensors, actuators and other electronic devices; they contain more than 60 weight per cent lead. Although there has been a concerted effort to develop lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, no effective alternative to PZT has yet been found. Here we report a lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with an electric-field-induced strain comparable to typical actuator-grade PZT. We achieved this through the combination of the discovery of a morphotropic phase boundary in an alkaline niobate-based perovskite solid solution, and the development of a processing route leading to highly textured polycrystals. The ceramic exhibits a piezoelectric constant d33 (the induced charge per unit force applied in the same direction) of above 300 picocoulombs per newton (pC N(-1)), and texturing the material leads to a peak d33 of 416 pC N(-1). The textured material also exhibits temperature-independent field-induced strain characteristics.
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        Polarization rotation mechanism for ultrahigh electromechanical response in single-crystal piezoelectrics

        Piezoelectric materials, which convert mechanical to electrical energy (and vice versa), are crucial in medical imaging, telecommunication and ultrasonic devices. A new generation of single-crystal materials, such as Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PZN-PT) and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT), exhibit a piezoelectric effect that is ten times larger than conventional ceramics, and may revolutionize these applications. However, the mechanism underlying the ultrahigh performance of these new materials-and consequently the possibilities for further improvements-are not at present clear. Here we report a first-principles study of the ferroelectric perovskite, BaTiO3, which is similar to single-crystal PZN-PT but is a simpler system to analyse. We show that a large piezoelectric response can be driven by polarization rotation induced by an external electric field. Our computations suggest how to design materials with better performance, and may stimulate further interest in the fundamental theory of dielectric systems in finite electric fields.
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          A new opto-mechanical effect in solids.

          We propose that large, reversible shape changes in solids, of between 10%-400%, can be induced optically by photoisomerizing monodomain nematic elastomers. Empirical and molecular analysis of shape change and its relation to thermal effects is given along with a simple model of the dynamics of response. Our experiments demonstrate these effects for the first time and theory is compared qualitatively with our results.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology , Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu, China
            [2 ]Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences , 215 Chengbei Road, Jiading, Shanghai 201800, China
            [3 ]Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech , Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA
            Author notes
            Journal
            Sci Rep
            Sci Rep
            Scientific Reports
            Nature Publishing Group
            2045-2322
            13 October 2016
            2016
            : 6
            27734908 5062069 srep35120 10.1038/srep35120
            Copyright © 2016, The Author(s)

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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