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      Common trend: move to enucleation—Is there a case for GreenLight enucleation? Development and description of the technique

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          Transurethral laser prostatectomy has evolved as a viable alternative for the management of benign prostate enlargement. Since the renaissance of laser prostatectomy with the advent of the holmium:yttrium–aluminum–garnet laser in the 1990s, various lasers and subsequent procedures have been introduced. These techniques can be categorized as vaporizing, resecting, and enucleating approaches. Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) is dominated by high-power lithium triborate (LBO) crystal lasers (GreenLight XPS). The mainstay of this technique is for the treatment of small to medium prostate volumes whereas enucleating techniques, such as holmium laser enucleation of the prostate and thulium enucleation of the prostate, focus on large-volume glands. In order to perspectively “delimit” LBO into the field of large-volume prostates, we developed LBO en bloc enucleation to render it as a competing transurethral enucleating approach.

          Materials and methods

          We present a detailed stepwise progressive technique developed in Madrid, Spain, for the complete removal of the transitional zone by vapoenucleation. The steps include exposition of the prostatic capsule by PVP toward the peripheral zone, thereby identifying the anatomical limits of enucleation. Subsequently, the transitional zone is excised in a single bloc and morcellated after its placement into the bladder.


          This new GreenLight en bloc enucleation technique allows to treat larger prostates than those previously treated with the PVP technique.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Holmium laser enucleation versus transurethral resection of the prostate: results from a 2-center, prospective, randomized trial in patients with obstructive benign prostatic hyperplasia.

          To our knowledge we report the first multicenter, prospective, randomized study comparing holmium laser enucleation (HoLEP) and transurethral prostate resection (TURP) for obstructive benign prostatic hyperplasia. From January to October 2002, 100 consecutive patients with symptomatic obstructive benign prostatic hyperplasia were randomized at 2 centers to surgical treatment with HoLEP (52 in group 1) or TURP (48 in group 2). Patients in the 2 groups were preoperatively assessed by scoring subjective symptoms questionnaires. Preoperative and perioperative parameters were also evaluated, the latter at 1, 6 and 12 months of followup. At baseline all patients had obstruction (Schäfer grade greater than 2). At the 1, 6 and 12-month followups no statistically significant differences were observed between the 2 groups in terms of urodynamic findings and subjective symptom scoring. In the HoLEP group mean total time in the operating room +/- SD was significantly longer than for TURP (74 +/- 19.5 vs 57 +/- 15 minutes, p < 0.05), while catheterization time (31 +/- 13 vs 57.78 +/- 17.5 minutes, p < 0.001 and hospital stay (59 +/- 19.9 vs 85.8 +/- 18.9 hours, p < 0.001) were significantly shorter in the HoLEP group. Transient stress and urge incontinence were more common in the HoLEP group, although at the 12-month followup results were comparable. The overall complication rate was comparable in the 2 groups. Erectile function was also maintained in the followup period from baseline in each group, as expected. HoLEP and TURP were equally effective for relieving obstruction and lower urinary tract symptoms. HoLEP was associated with shorter catheterization time and hospital stay. At 1 year of followup complications were similar in the 2 groups.
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            Thulium laser versus standard transurethral resection of the prostate: a randomized prospective trial.

            Thulium laser resection of the prostate-tangerine technique (TmLRP-TT) is a transurethral procedure that uses thulium laser fiber to dissect whole prostatic lobes off the surgical capsule, similar to peeling a tangerine. To our knowledge we report the first prospective, randomized study comparing TmLRP-TT and standard TURP for symptomatic BPH. From November 2004 to December 2005, 100 consecutive BPH patients were randomized for surgical treatment with TmLRP-TT (n=52) or TURP (n=48). All patients were preoperatively assessed with subjective symptoms score, International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire, and complete urodynamic evaluation. Preoperative and perioperative parameters at 1-, 6-, and 12-mo follow-up were also evaluated. All complications were recorded. TmLRP-TT was significantly superior to TURP in terms of catheterization time (45.7+/-25.8h vs. 87.4+/-33.8h, p 0.05). TmLRP-TT and TURP resulted in a significant improvement from baseline in terms of subjective symptoms scoring and urodynamic finding, but no significant difference was found between the two groups. Late complications were also comparable. TmLRP-TT is an almost bloodless procedure with high efficacy and little perioperative morbidity. TmLRP-TT is superior to TURP in safety and is as efficacious as TURP in 1-yr follow-up. It is a promising technology in the clinical practice field.
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              Thulium laser enucleation of the prostate (ThuLEP): transurethral anatomical prostatectomy with laser support. Introduction of a novel technique for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction.

              Transurethral removal of prostatic tissue is the treatment choice for benign prostatic enlargement and benign prostatic obstruction. Urodynamic results are directly linked to the amount of removed tissue which, however, is directly associated with intra- and postoperative morbidity. Transurethral laser operations of the prostate offer the advantage of decreased bleeding complications and the possibility to treat patients with bleeding disorders or anticoagulative treatment. The aim of the article is to present a novel technique of complete transurethral removal of the transition zone (enucleation) with the support of the Thulium laser to combine complete anatomical enucleation and maximum urodynamic efficacy with minimal side-effects. We present five distinct surgical steps for transurethral complete removal of the transition zone of the prostate (Thulium laser enucleation of the prostate, ThuLEP). Surgical steps are presented in chronological order with the help of intraoperative pictures. Laser energy of 70-90 W is only used for the incision at the verumontanum and bladder neck for removal of the middle lobe, whereas laser energy of 30 W was only used for coagulation of small vessel crossing the surgical capsule towards the transition zone and bladder neck for dissection of the lateral lobes. The lobes themselves are liberated by blunt dissection. ThuLEP offers complete removal of the transition zone no matter what prostatic size. The techniques combine maximum efficacy with minimal side-effects. Clinical results comparing ThuLEP with open prostatectomy or transurethral resection are awaited.

                Author and article information

                +34 914352844 , fgomsan@gmail.com
                World J Urol
                World J Urol
                World Journal of Urology
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                15 June 2014
                15 June 2014
                : 33
                : 4
                : 539-547
                [ ]ICUA, Clínica CEMTRO, Ventisquero de la Condesa 42, 28035 Madrid, Spain
                [ ]Hill Clinic, Alexander Pushkin Blvd. 71, Sofia, 1618 Bulgaria
                [ ]Medizinsche Hochschule Hannover, Hannover, Germany
                © The Author(s) 2014

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

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                greenlight laser, benign prostatic enlargement, enucleation, vaporization


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