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      The overlap between bronchiectasis and chronic airway diseases: state of the art and future directions

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          Abstract

          Bronchiectasis is a clinical and radiological diagnosis associated with cough, sputum production and recurrent respiratory infections. The clinical presentation inevitably overlaps with other respiratory disorders such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In addition, 4–72% of patients with severe COPD are found to have radiological bronchiectasis on computed tomography, with similar frequencies (20–30%) now being reported in cohorts with severe or uncontrolled asthma. Co-diagnosis of bronchiectasis with another airway disease is associated with increased lung inflammation, frequent exacerbations, worse lung function and higher mortality. In addition, many patients with all three disorders have chronic rhinosinusitis and upper airway disease, resulting in a complex “mixed airway” phenotype.

          The management of asthma, bronchiectasis, COPD and upper airway diseases has traditionally been outlined in separate guidelines for each individual disorder. Recognition that the majority of patients have one or more overlapping pathologies requires that we re-evaluate how we treat airway disease. The concept of treatable traits promotes a holistic, pathophysiology-based approach to treatment rather than a syndromic approach and may be more appropriate for patients with overlapping features.

          Here, we review the current clinical definition, diagnosis, management and future directions for the overlap between bronchiectasis and other airway diseases.

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          Most cited references 63

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          EPOS 2012: European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2012. A summary for otorhinolaryngologists

          The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012 is the update of similar evidence based position papers published in 2005 and 2007. The document contains chapters on definitions and classification, we now also proposed definitions for difficult to treat rhinosinusitis, control of disease and better definitions for rhinosinusitis in children. More emphasis is placed on the diagnosis and treatment of acute rhinosinusitis. Throughout the document the terms chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) are used to further point out differences in pathophysiology and treatment of these two entities. There are extensive chapters on epidemiology and predisposing factors, inflammatory mechanisms, (differential) diagnosis of facial pain, genetics, cystic fibrosis, aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease, immunodeficiencies, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the relationship between upper and lower airways. The chapters on paediatric acute and chronic rhinosinusitis are totally rewritten. Last but not least all available evidence for management of acute rhinosinusitis and chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps in adults and children is analyzed and presented and management schemes based on the evidence are proposed. This executive summary for otorhinolaryngologists focuses on the most important changes and issues for otorhinolaryngologists. The full document can be downloaded for free on the website of this journal: http://www.rhinologyjournal.com.
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            Spanish Guidelines for Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (GesEPOC) 2017. Pharmacological Treatment of Stable Phase.

            The clinical presentation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) varies widely, so treatment must be tailored according to the level of risk and phenotype. In 2012, the Spanish COPD Guidelines (GesEPOC) first established pharmacological treatment regimens based on clinical phenotypes. These regimens were subsequently adopted by other national guidelines, and since then, have been backed up by new evidence. In this 2017 update, the original severity classification has been replaced by a much simpler risk classification (low or high risk), on the basis of lung function, dyspnea grade, and history of exacerbations, while determination of clinical phenotype is recommended only in high-risk patients. The same clinical phenotypes have been maintained: non-exacerbator, asthma-COPD overlap (ACO), exacerbator with emphysema, and exacerbator with bronchitis. Pharmacological treatment of COPD is based on bronchodilators, the only treatment recommended in low-risk patients. High-risk patients will receive different drugs in addition to bronchodilators, depending on their clinical phenotype. GesEPOC reflects a more individualized approach to COPD treatment, according to patient clinical characteristics and level of risk or complexity.
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              The Role of Neutrophil Elastase Inhibitors in Lung Diseases.

              In many respiratory diseases characterized by an intense inflammatory response, the balance between proteolytic enzymes (proteases, including elastases) and their inhibitors (proteinases inhibitors) is not neutral. Excess activity of neutrophil elastase (NE) and similar proteases has been reported to cause tissue damage and to alter the remodeling process in many clinical conditions such as pneumonia, respiratory distress, and acute lung injury (ALI). Several experimental NE inhibitors have been tested in preclinical and clinical studies of different conditions of inflammatory lung injury such as ALI and pneumonia, with contrasting results. This study reviews the literature regarding NE inhibitors in the field of respiratory diseases and reflects on possible future developments. In particular, we highlight potential gaps in the scientific evidence and discuss potential strategies for focusing investigation on antielastases in clinical practice through the selection of targeted populations and proper outcomes.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                European Respiratory Journal
                Eur Respir J
                European Respiratory Society (ERS)
                0903-1936
                1399-3003
                September 06 2018
                September 2018
                September 2018
                July 26 2018
                : 52
                : 3
                : 1800328
                Article
                10.1183/13993003.00328-2018
                30049739
                © 2018

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