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      Transverse Cervical Artery Pseudoaneurysm: A Rare Complication of Internal Jugular Vein Cannulation

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          Internal jugular vein cannulation has become the preferred approach for temporary hemodialysis catheter placement following reports of an increased incidence of subclavian vein stenosis due to subclavian vein catheterization. Internal jugular vein catheterization is associated with a high rate of successful catheter placement. However, significant complications such as internal carotid artery (ICA) puncture, pneumothorax, vessel erosion, thrombosis, airway obstruction and infection can occur. The most common complication is ICA puncture. More recently a few cases of thyrocervical trunk pseudoaneurysm and fistula following internal jugular vein and subclavian vein catheterization attempts have been reported. Patients with renal failure who are on hemodialysis may have to undergo multiple catheter placements and vascular access interventions. This, along with their comorbid conditions, increases the risk of such complications. Here we report a patient on hemodialysis who developed transverse cervical artery pseudoaneurysm following an attempted right internal jugular vein catheterization. We report this case because of its rarity, to raise awareness of such a complication and to discuss different treatment options, in particular endovascular coil occlusion. A review of relevant literature is also presented.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Ultrasound guidance for placement of central venous catheters

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            A prospective study of the incidence and natural history of femoral vascular complications after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

            Over a 14-month period patients undergoing 144 percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty procedures were evaluated for the presence of complications at the femoral puncture site. After percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty each patient was examined by a surgeon, and then a color-flow duplex scan of the groin was obtained. On the initial scan eight pseudoaneurysms, three arteriovenous fistulas, one combined arteriovenous fistula-pseudoaneurysm, and one thrombosed superficial femoral artery were detected for a major vascular complication rate of 9%. Pseudoaneurysm formation was associated with the use of heparin after removal of the arterial sheath. Seven pseudoaneurysms (initial extravascular cavity size range 1.3 to 3.5 cm) were followed with weekly duplex scans, and all thrombosed spontaneously within 4 weeks of detection. The three patients with isolated arteriovenous fistulas were each followed for at least 8 weeks, and the arteriovenous fistulas persisted. Early surgical intervention for postcatheterization femoral pseudoaneurysms is usually unnecessary as thrombosis often occurs spontaneously. We would advocate an operative approach for pseudoaneurysms that are symptomatic, expanding, or associated with large hematomas. Iatrogenic femoral arteriovenous fistulas should be considered for elective repair, but this may be delayed for several weeks without adverse sequelae.
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              Treatment of iatrogenic femoral artery injuries with ultrasound-guided compression.

              Iatrogenic injuries of the groin are becoming more common after increasingly sophisticated vascular intervention. These injuries are accurately detected by duplex and color Doppler ultrasonography. Recent treatment of these lesions by ultrasound-guided compression repair (UGCR) has been described. During a 1-year period we identified 18 femoral artery injuries, including 17 pseudoaneurysms and one arteriovenous fistula. Three of the pseudoaneurysms thrombosed spontaneously before attempted treatment. The remaining 15 lesions underwent a trial of UGCR. Successful closure was accomplished in 10 patients (56%). Seven of these lesions were successfully treated during the initial session, and thrombosis was accomplished after repeat compression in three additional lesions. Three patients who were given anticoagulants had a failed UGCR, but their pseudoaneurysms thrombosed after administration of anticoagulants was discontinued. Two patients had failed UGCR and required operation. Seven (88%) of eight patients who were not given anticoagulants were successfully treated. In contrast only two (29%) of seven patients given therapeutic doses of anticoagulant medication were successfully treated by the technique. There was no statistical difference between mean pseudoaneurysm diameter, mean width and length of pseudoaneurysm neck, or depth of pseudoaneurysm neck from skin surface in patients in whom successful initial closure was achieved when compared with those patients in whom the initial attempt failed. UGCR is a safe, simple, noninvasive technique that can be used to treat many femoral artery injuries that traditionally were treated with surgery. The technique can be applied by any laboratory that has the necessary ultrasonography equipment and is currently the method of choice for treating uncomplicated iatrogenic femoral artery injuries at our institution.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                December 2000
                22 December 2000
                : 20
                : 6
                : 476-482
                Departments of aMedicine and bRadiology, Hahnemann Hospital, MCP/Hahnemann University, Philadelphia, Pa., USA
                46203 Am J Nephrol 2000;20:476–482
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 4, References: 39, Pages: 7
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