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      2018 Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association

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          Abstract

          The purpose of these guidelines is to provide an up-to-date comprehensive set of recommendations for clinicians caring for adult patients with acute arterial ischemic stroke in a single document. The intended audiences are prehospital care providers, physicians, allied health professionals, and hospital administrators. These guidelines supersede the 2013 guidelines and subsequent updates.

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          Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischaemic stroke: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis

          Summary Background Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA, alteplase) improved functional outcome in patients treated soon after acute ischaemic stroke in randomised trials, but licensing is restrictive and use varies widely. The IST-3 trial adds substantial new data. We therefore assessed all the evidence from randomised trials for rt-PA in acute ischaemic stroke in an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods We searched for randomised trials of intravenous rt-PA versus control given within 6 h of onset of acute ischaemic stroke up to March 30, 2012. We estimated summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI in the primary analysis for prespecified outcomes within 7 days and at the final follow-up of all patients treated up to 6 h after stroke. Findings In up to 12 trials (7012 patients), rt-PA given within 6 h of stroke significantly increased the odds of being alive and independent (modified Rankin Scale, mRS 0–2) at final follow-up (1611/3483 [46·3%] vs 1434/3404 [42·1%], OR 1·17, 95% CI 1·06–1·29; p=0·001), absolute increase of 42 (19–66) per 1000 people treated, and favourable outcome (mRS 0–1) absolute increase of 55 (95% CI 33–77) per 1000. The benefit of rt-PA was greatest in patients treated within 3 h (mRS 0–2, 365/896 [40·7%] vs 280/883 [31·7%], 1·53, 1·26–1·86, p<0·0001), absolute benefit of 90 (46–135) per 1000 people treated, and mRS 0–1 (283/896 [31·6%] vs 202/883 [22·9%], 1·61, 1·30–1·90; p<0·0001), absolute benefit 87 (46–128) per 1000 treated. Numbers of deaths within 7 days were increased (250/2807 [8·9%] vs 174/2728 [6·4%], 1·44, 1·18–1·76; p=0·0003), but by final follow-up the excess was no longer significant (679/3548 [19·1%] vs 640/3464 [18·5%], 1·06, 0·94–1·20; p=0·33). Symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (272/3548 [7·7%] vs 63/3463 [1·8%], 3·72, 2·98–4·64; p<0·0001) accounted for most of the early excess deaths. Patients older than 80 years achieved similar benefit to those aged 80 years or younger, particularly when treated early. Interpretation The evidence indicates that intravenous rt-PA increased the proportion of patients who were alive with favourable outcome and alive and independent at final follow-up. The data strengthen previous evidence to treat patients as early as possible after acute ischaemic stroke, although some patients might benefit up to 6 h after stroke. Funding UK Medical Research Council, Stroke Association, University of Edinburgh, National Health Service Health Technology Assessment Programme, Swedish Heart-Lung Fund, AFA Insurances Stockholm (Arbetsmarknadens Partners Forsakringsbolag), Karolinska Institute, Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, Research Council of Norway, Oslo University Hospital.
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            Magnetic resonance imaging profiles predict clinical response to early reperfusion: the diffusion and perfusion imaging evaluation for understanding stroke evolution (DEFUSE) study.

            To determine whether prespecified baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profiles can identify stroke patients who have a robust clinical response after early reperfusion when treated 3 to 6 hours after symptom onset. We conducted a prospective, multicenter study of 74 consecutive stroke patients admitted to academic stroke centers in North America and Europe. An MRI scan was obtained immediately before and 3 to 6 hours after treatment with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator 3 to 6 hours after symptom onset. Baseline MRI profiles were used to categorize patients into subgroups, and clinical responses were compared based on whether early reperfusion was achieved. Early reperfusion was associated with significantly increased odds of achieving a favorable clinical response in patients with a perfusion/diffusion mismatch (odds ratio, 5.4; p = 0.039) and an even more favorable response in patients with the Target Mismatch profile (odds ratio, 8.7; p = 0.011). Patients with the No Mismatch profile did not appear to benefit from early reperfusion. Early reperfusion was associated with fatal intracranial hemorrhage in patients with the Malignant profile. For stroke patients treated 3 to 6 hours after onset, baseline MRI findings can identify subgroups that are likely to benefit from reperfusion therapies and can potentially identify subgroups that are unlikely to benefit or may be harmed.
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              Effects of alteplase beyond 3 h after stroke in the Echoplanar Imaging Thrombolytic Evaluation Trial (EPITHET): a placebo-controlled randomised trial.

              Whether intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (alteplase) is effective beyond 3 h after onset of acute ischaemic stroke is unclear. We aimed to test whether alteplase given 3-6 h after stroke onset promotes reperfusion and attenuates infarct growth in patients who have a mismatch in perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI). We prospectively and randomly assigned 101 patients to receive alteplase or placebo 3-6 h after onset of ischaemic stroke. PWI and DWI were done before and 3-5 days after therapy, with T2-weighted MRI at around day 90. The primary endpoint was infarct growth between baseline DWI and the day 90 T2 lesion in mismatch patients. Major secondary endpoints were reperfusion, good neurological outcome, and good functional outcome. Patients, caregivers, and investigators were unaware of treatment allocations. Primary analysis was per protocol. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00238537. We randomly assigned 52 patients to alteplase and 49 patients to placebo. Mean age was 71.6 years, and median score on the National Institutes of Health stroke scale was 13. 85 of 99 (86%) patients had mismatch of PWI and DWI. The geometric mean infarct growth (exponential of the mean log of relative growth) was 1.24 with alteplase and 1.78 with placebo (ratio 0.69, 95% CI 0.38-1.28; Student's t test p=0.239); the median relative infarct growth was 1.18 with alteplase and 1.79 with placebo (ratio 0.66, 0.36-0.92; Wilcoxon's test p=0.054). Reperfusion was more common with alteplase than with placebo and was associated with less infarct growth (p=0.001), better neurological outcome (p<0.0001), and better functional outcome (p=0.010) than was no reperfusion. Alteplase was non-significantly associated with lower infarct growth and significantly associated with increased reperfusion in patients who had mismatch. Because reperfusion was associated with improved clinical outcomes, phase III trials beyond 3 h after treatment are warranted.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Stroke
                Stroke
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0039-2499
                1524-4628
                March 2018
                March 2018
                : 49
                : 3
                Article
                10.1161/STR.0000000000000158
                29367334
                © 2018

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