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      Protective effects of curcumin co-treatment in rats with establishing chronic variable stress on testis and reproductive hormones

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          Abstract

          Background:

          Protracted and repeated exposure to chronic variable stress (CVS) may lead to reproductive dysfunction. It is a basic cause of male infertility. Curcumin (CUR) is an active fraction of turmeric that used in traditional Chinese medicine. CUR represents various pharmacological activities.

          Objective:

          The purpose of this study was to determining the effects of CUR on testis and testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in rats with establishing chronic variable stress.

          Materials and Methods:

          Twenty-one adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: 1) control, 2) CVS and 3) CVS+ CUR (100 mg/kg/day dissolved in 0.5 mL of olive oil). All of the animals in control, CVS, and CVS+CUR groups were sacrificed after 15 days. Testosterone, FSH, LH, and testis damage were evaluated.

          Results:

          Significant changes in the normal range of testosterone, FSH, LH serum levels and seminiferous tubule apoptotic cells were detected in CVS group compared to the control rats (p=0.02). These parameters changed to a less extent in CVS+CUR animals compared to the CVS rats (p=0.02).

          Conclusion:

          Our findings propose that curcumin might have curative potential on the reproductive system function and its impairment. It’s regulated by stress and reproductive-related hormones.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Physiology and neurobiology of stress and adaptation: central role of the brain.

           B McEwen (2007)
          The brain is the key organ of the response to stress because it determines what is threatening and, therefore, potentially stressful, as well as the physiological and behavioral responses which can be either adaptive or damaging. Stress involves two-way communication between the brain and the cardiovascular, immune, and other systems via neural and endocrine mechanisms. Beyond the "flight-or-fight" response to acute stress, there are events in daily life that produce a type of chronic stress and lead over time to wear and tear on the body ("allostatic load"). Yet, hormones associated with stress protect the body in the short-run and promote adaptation ("allostasis"). The brain is a target of stress, and the hippocampus was the first brain region, besides the hypothalamus, to be recognized as a target of glucocorticoids. Stress and stress hormones produce both adaptive and maladaptive effects on this brain region throughout the life course. Early life events influence life-long patterns of emotionality and stress responsiveness and alter the rate of brain and body aging. The hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex undergo stress-induced structural remodeling, which alters behavioral and physiological responses. As an adjunct to pharmaceutical therapy, social and behavioral interventions such as regular physical activity and social support reduce the chronic stress burden and benefit brain and body health and resilience.
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            Stress and disorders of the stress system.

            All organisms must maintain a complex dynamic equilibrium, or homeostasis, which is constantly challenged by internal or external adverse forces termed stressors. Stress occurs when homeostasis is threatened or perceived to be so; homeostasis is re-established by various physiological and behavioral adaptive responses. Neuroendocrine hormones have major roles in the regulation of both basal homeostasis and responses to threats, and are involved in the pathogenesis of diseases characterized by dyshomeostasis or cacostasis. The stress response is mediated by the stress system, partly located in the central nervous system and partly in peripheral organs. The central, greatly interconnected effectors of this system include the hypothalamic hormones arginine vasopressin, corticotropin-releasing hormone and pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides, and the locus ceruleus and autonomic norepinephrine centers in the brainstem. Targets of these effectors include the executive and/or cognitive, reward and fear systems, the wake-sleep centers of the brain, the growth, reproductive and thyroid hormone axes, and the gastrointestinal, cardiorespiratory, metabolic, and immune systems. Optimal basal activity and responsiveness of the stress system is essential for a sense of well-being, successful performance of tasks, and appropriate social interactions. By contrast, excessive or inadequate basal activity and responsiveness of this system might impair development, growth and body composition, and lead to a host of behavioral and somatic pathological conditions.
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              Curcumin: the Indian solid gold.

              Turmeric, derived from the plant Curcuma longa, is a gold-colored spice commonly used in the Indian subcontinent, not only for health care but also for the preservation of food and as a yellow dye for textiles. Curcumin, which gives the yellow color to turmeric, was first isolated almost two centuries ago, and its structure as diferuloylmethane was determined in 1910. Since the time of Ayurveda (1900 Bc) numerous therapeutic activities have been assigned to turmeric for a wide variety of diseases and conditions, including those of the skin, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal systems, aches, pains, wounds, sprains, and liver disorders. Extensive research within the last half century has proven that most of these activities, once associated with turmeric, are due to curcumin. Curcumin has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities and thus has a potential against various malignant diseases, diabetes, allergies, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and other chronic illnesses. These effects are mediated through the regulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, protein kinases, and other enzymes. Curcumin exhibits activities similar to recently discovered tumor necrosis factor blockers (e.g., HUMIRA, REMICADE, and ENBREL), a vascular endothelial cell growth factor blocker (e.g., AVASTIN), human epidermal growth factor receptor blockers (e.g., ERBITUX, ERLOTINIB, and GEFTINIB), and a HER2 blocker (e.g., HERCEPTIN). Considering the recent scientific bandwagon that multitargeted therapy is better than monotargeted therapy for most diseases, curcumin can be considered an ideal "Spice for Life".
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Reprod Biomed (Yazd)
                Int J Reprod Biomed (Yazd)
                IJRB
                International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine
                Research and Clinical Center for Infertility (Yazd, Iran )
                2476-4108
                2476-3772
                July 2017
                : 15
                : 7
                : 447-452
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Histomorphometry and Stereology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
                [2 ] Anatomy Department, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Elham Aliabadi, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Zand Ave., Shiraz, Iran. Postal code: 71348-45794. Email: aliabade@sums.ac.ir, Tel: (+98) 713 2304372
                Article
                ijrb-15-447
                5601937

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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