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      Sustained release of hepatocyte growth factor by cationic self-assembling peptide/heparin hybrid hydrogel improves β-cell survival and function through modulating inflammatory response

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          Abstract

          Inflammatory response is a major cause of grafts dysfunction in islet transplantation. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) had shown anti-inflammatory activity in multiple diseases. In this study, we aim to deliver HGF by self-assembling peptide/heparin (SAP/Hep) hybrid gel to protect β-cell from inflammatory injury. The morphological and slow release properties of SAPs were analyzed. Rat INS-1 β-cell line was treated with tumor necrosis factor α in vitro and transplanted into rat kidney capsule in vivo, and the viability, apoptosis, function, and inflammation of β-cells were evaluated. Cationic KLD1R and KLD2R self-assembled to nanofiber hydrogel, which showed higher binding affinity for Hep and HGF because of electrostatic interaction. Slow release of HGF from cationic SAP/Hep gel is a two-step mechanism involving binding affinity with Hep and molecular diffusion. In vitro and in vivo results showed that HGF-loaded KLD2R/Hep gel promoted β-cell survival and insulin secretion, and inhibited cell apoptosis, cytokine release, T-cell infiltration, and activation of NFκB/p38 MAPK pathways in β-cells. This study suggested that SAP/Hep gel is a promising carrier for local delivery of bioactive proteins in islet transplantation.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Hepatocyte growth factor twenty years on: Much more than a growth factor.

          Liver regeneration depends on the proliferation of mature hepatocytes. In the 1980s, the method for the cultivation of mature hepatocytes provided an opportunity for the discovery of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) as a protein that is structurally and functionally different from other growth factors. In 1991, the scatter factor, tumor cytotoxic factor, and 3-D epithelial morphogen were identified as HGF, and Met tyrosine kinase was identified as the receptor for HGF. Thus, the connection of apparently unrelated research projects rapidly enriched the research on HGF in different fields. The HGF-Met pathway plays important roles in the embryonic development of the liver and the placenta, in the migration of myogenic precursor cells, and in epithelial morphogenesis. The use of tissue-specific knockout mice demonstrated that in mature tissues the HGF-Met pathway plays a critical role in tissue protection and regeneration, and in providing less susceptibility to chronic inflammation and fibrosis. In various injury and disease models, HGF promotes cell survival, regeneration of tissues, and suppresses and improves chronic inflammation and fibrosis. Drug development using HGF has been challenging, but extensive preclinical studies to address its therapeutic effects have provided significant results sufficient for the development of HGF as a biological drug in the regeneration-based therapy of diseases. Clinical trials using recombinant human HGF protein, or HGF genes, are in progress for the treatment of diseases. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
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            Reduction in pancreatic transcription factor PDX-1 impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

            Complete lack of transcription factor PDX-1 leads to pancreatic agenesis, whereas heterozygosity for PDX-1 mutations has been recently noted in some individuals with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) and in some individuals with type 2 diabetes. To determine how alterations in PDX-1 affect islet function, we examined insulin secretion and islet physiology in mice with one PDX-1 allele inactivated. PDX-1(+/-) mice had a normal fasting blood glucose and pancreatic insulin content but had impaired glucose tolerance and secreted less insulin during glucose tolerance testing. The expression of PDX-1 and glucose transporter 2 in islets from PDX-1(+/-) mice was reduced to 68 and 55%, respectively, whereas glucokinase expression was not significantly altered. NAD(P)H generation in response to glucose was reduced by 30% in PDX-1(+/-) mice. The in situ perfused pancreas of PDX-1(+/-) mice secreted about 45% less insulin when stimulated with 16.7 mm glucose. The K(m) for insulin release was similar in wild type and PDX-1(+/-) mice. Insulin secretion in response to 20 mm arginine was unchanged; the response to 10 nm glucagon-like peptide-1 was slightly increased. However, insulin secretory responses to 10 mm 2-ketoisocaproate and 20 mm KCl were significantly reduced (by 61 and 66%, respectively). These results indicate that a modest reduction in PDX-1 impairs several events in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (such as NAD(P)H generation, mitochondrial function, and/or mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+)) and that PDX-1 is important for normal function of adult pancreatic islets.
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              Potent induction immunotherapy promotes long-term insulin independence after islet transplantation in type 1 diabetes.

              The seemingly inexorable decline in insulin independence after islet transplant alone (ITA) has raised concern about its clinical utility. We hypothesized that induction immunosuppression therapy determines durability of insulin independence. We analyzed the proportion of insulin-independent patients following final islet infusion in four groups of ITA recipients according to induction immunotherapy: University of Minnesota recipients given FcR nonbinding anti-CD3 antibody alone or T cell depleting antibodies (TCDAb) and TNF-α inhibition (TNF-α-i) (group 1; n = 29); recipients reported to the Collaborative Islet Transplant Registry (CITR) given TCDAb+TNF-α-i (group 2; n = 20); CITR recipients given TCDAb without TNF-α-i (group 3; n = 43); and CITR recipients given IL-2 receptor antibodies (IL-2RAb) alone (group 4; n = 177). Results were compared with outcomes in pancreas transplant alone (PTA) recipients reported to the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (group 5; n = 677). The 5-year insulin independence rates in group 1 (50%) and group 2 (50%) were comparable to outcomes in PTA (group 5: 52%; p>0.05) but significantly higher than in group 3 (0%; p = 0.001) and group 4 (20%; p = 0.02). Induction immunosuppression was significantly associated with 5-year insulin independence (p = 0.03), regardless of maintenance immunosuppression or other factors. These findings support potential for long-term insulin independence after ITA using potent induction therapy, with anti-CD3 Ab or TCDAb+TNF-α-i. © Copyright 2012 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Nanomedicine
                Int J Nanomedicine
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9114
                1178-2013
                2016
                23 September 2016
                : 11
                : 4875-4890
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Key Laboratory of Transplant Engineering and Immunology, West China Hospital
                [2 ]Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yanrong Lu; Jingping Liu, Key Laboratory of Transplant Engineering and Immunology, West China Hospital, No 1 Keyuan 4th Road, Gaopeng Avenue, Chengdu 610041, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 28 8516 4029, Fax +86 28 8516 4030, Email luyanrong@ 123456scu.edu.cn ; liujingping@ 123456scu.edu.cn
                Article
                ijn-11-4875
                10.2147/IJN.S108921
                5042198
                27729786
                © 2016 Liu et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Molecular medicine

                self-assembling peptide, islet transplantation, inflammation, hgf, slow release

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