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      Quality of life and overweight: the obesity related well-being (Orwell 97) questionnaire.

      Addictive Behaviors
      Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Depressive Disorder, diagnosis, psychology, Eating Disorders, Female, Health Status, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Obesity, Psychological Tests, Quality of Life, Questionnaires, Reproducibility of Results, Self Concept, Severity of Illness Index

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          The development and validation of a self-reported measure of obesity-related quality of life, the Obesity Related Well-Being (ORWELL 97), were undertaken to examine the intensity and the subjective relevance of physical and psychosocial distress. The questionnaire was validated in a sample of 147 obese patients (99 females, 48 males). The Eating Disorder Examination 12.0D interview, a structured diagnostic interview for DSM-III-R (DSM-IV criteria for binge eating disorder), Beck Depression Inventory, Binge Eating Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory 1 and 2 scales were also applied. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were satisfactory. Factor analysis allowed the identification of two subscales: ORWELL 97-1 related to psychological status and social adjustment, and ORWELL 97-2 related to physical symptoms impairment. Obese female patients showed a lower quality of life, and the severity of obesity appeared to interfere with physical functioning rather than psychological status and social adjustment. The ORWELL 97 questionnaire appears to be a simple and reliable measure of obesity-related quality of life, which can be used in current clinical practice.

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