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      Injection of adult neurospheres induces recovery in a chronic model of multiple sclerosis.

      Nature

      physiology, cytology, Stem Cells, Stem Cell Transplantation, metabolism, genetics, RNA, Messenger, pathology, Oligodendroglia, transplantation, Neurons, Nerve Fibers, Myelinated, therapy, physiopathology, Multiple Sclerosis, Mice, Injections, Intraventricular, Injections, Intravenous, Growth Substances, Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental, Disease Progression, Chronic Disease, Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy, Cell Movement, Cell Differentiation, Cell Count, Brain Tissue Transplantation, Axons, Animals, Aging

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          Abstract

          Widespread demyelination and axonal loss are the pathological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis. The multifocal nature of this chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system complicates cellular therapy and puts emphasis on both the donor cell origin and the route of cell transplantation. We established syngenic adult neural stem cell cultures and injected them into an animal model of multiple sclerosis--experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the mouse--either intravenously or intracerebroventricularly. In both cases, significant numbers of donor cells entered into demyelinating areas of the central nervous system and differentiated into mature brain cells. Within these areas, oligodendrocyte progenitors markedly increased, with many of them being of donor origin and actively remyelinating axons. Furthermore, a significant reduction of astrogliosis and a marked decrease in the extent of demyelination and axonal loss were observed in transplanted animals. The functional impairment caused by EAE was almost abolished in transplanted mice, both clinically and neurophysiologically. Thus, adult neural precursor cells promote multifocal remyelination and functional recovery after intravenous or intrathecal injection in a chronic model of multiple sclerosis.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Dopamine neurons derived from embryonic stem cells function in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

          Parkinson's disease is a widespread condition caused by the loss of midbrain neurons that synthesize the neurotransmitter dopamine. Cells derived from the fetal midbrain can modify the course of the disease, but they are an inadequate source of dopamine-synthesizing neurons because their ability to generate these neurons is unstable. In contrast, embryonic stem (ES) cells proliferate extensively and can generate dopamine neurons. If ES cells are to become the basis for cell therapies, we must develop methods of enriching for the cell of interest and demonstrate that these cells show functions that will assist in treating the disease. Here we show that a highly enriched population of midbrain neural stem cells can be derived from mouse ES cells. The dopamine neurons generated by these stem cells show electrophysiological and behavioural properties expected of neurons from the midbrain. Our results encourage the use of ES cells in cell-replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease.
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            Neural stem cells display extensive tropism for pathology in adult brain: evidence from intracranial gliomas.

            One of the impediments to the treatment of brain tumors (e.g., gliomas) has been the degree to which they expand, infiltrate surrounding tissue, and migrate widely into normal brain, usually rendering them "elusive" to effective resection, irradiation, chemotherapy, or gene therapy. We demonstrate that neural stem cells (NSCs), when implanted into experimental intracranial gliomas in vivo in adult rodents, distribute themselves quickly and extensively throughout the tumor bed and migrate uniquely in juxtaposition to widely expanding and aggressively advancing tumor cells, while continuing to stably express a foreign gene. The NSCs "surround" the invading tumor border while "chasing down" infiltrating tumor cells. When implanted intracranially at distant sites from the tumor (e.g., into normal tissue, into the contralateral hemisphere, or into the cerebral ventricles), the donor cells migrate through normal tissue targeting the tumor cells (including human glioblastomas). When implanted outside the CNS intravascularly, NSCs will target an intracranial tumor. NSCs can deliver a therapeutically relevant molecule-cytosine deaminase-such that quantifiable reduction in tumor burden results. These data suggest the adjunctive use of inherently migratory NSCs as a delivery vehicle for targeting therapeutic genes and vectors to refractory, migratory, invasive brain tumors. More broadly, they suggest that NSC migration can be extensive, even in the adult brain and along nonstereotypical routes, if pathology (as modeled here by tumor) is present.
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              Why does remyelination fail in multiple sclerosis?

              Multiple sclerosis is a common cause of neurological disability in young adults. The disease is complex -- its aetiology is multifactorial and largely unknown; its pathology is heterogeneous; and, clinically, it is difficult to diagnose, manage and treat. However, perhaps its most frustrating aspect is the inadequacy of the healing response of remyelination. This regenerative process generally occurs with great efficiency in experimental models, and sometimes proceeds to completion in multiple sclerosis. But as the disease progresses, the numbers of lesions in which demyelination persists increases, significantly contributing to clinical deterioration. Understanding why remyelination fails is crucial for devising effective methods by which to enhance it.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.1038/nature01552
                12700753

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