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      Motivational and psychological correlates of bodybuilding dependence

      * , **
      Journal of Behavioral Addictions
      Akadémiai Kiadó
      stress, anger, hostility, aggression

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          Background and aims: Exercise may become physically and psychologically maladaptive if taken to extremes. One example is the dependence reported by some individuals who engage in weight training. The current study explored potential psychological, motivational, emotional and behavioural concomitants of bodybuilding dependence, with a particular focus on motives for weight training. Using a path analysis paradigm, putative causal models sought to explain associations among key study variables. Methods: A convenience sample of 101 men aged between 18 and 67 years was assembled from gymnasia in Adelaide, South Australia. Active weight trainers voluntarily completed a questionnaire that included measures of bodybuilding dependence (social dependency, training dependency, and mastery), anger, hostility and aggression, stress and motivations for weight training. Results: Three motives for weight training were identified: mood control, physique anxiety and personal challenge. Of these, personal challenge and mood control were the most directly salient to dependence. Social dependency was particularly relevant to personal challenge, whereas training dependency was associated with both personal challenge and mood control. Mastery demonstrated a direct link with physique anxiety, thus reflecting a unique component of exercise dependence. Conclusions: While it was not possible to determine causality with the available data, the joint roles of variables that influence, or are influenced by, bodybuilding dependence are identified. Results highlight unique motivations for bodybuilding and suggest that dependence could be a result of, and way of coping with, stress manifesting as aggression. A potential framework for future research is provided through the demonstration of plausible causal linkages among these variables.

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          Factor analysis

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            Exercise dependence: a systematic review

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              Exercise addiction: symptoms, diagnosis, epidemiology, and etiology.

              Regular physical activity plays a crucial role in health maintenance and disease prevention. However, excessive exercise has the potential to have adverse effects on both physical and mental health. The scholastic and empirical discussion of excessive physical activity focuses on obsessive and compulsive exercising, and uses several labels. However, in this review, we argue that the most appropriate term for this phenomenon is exercise addiction, emphasizing that excessive physical exercise fits the typical and most common characteristics of behavioral addictions. The aim of this review is to synthesize the current knowledge on symptomology, diagnosis, epidemiology, and etiology of exercise addiction.

                Author and article information

                J Behav Addict
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                September 2014
                27 September 2014
                : 3
                : 3
                : 182-188
                School of Medicine, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia
                Author notes
                *Neim Nick Emini is now a General Medical Practitioner in Ontario, Canada
                **Corresponding author: Assoc. Prof. Malcolm J. Bond; School of Medicine, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia; Phone: +61872218503; Fax: +61872218544; E-mail: malcolm.bond@ 123456flinders.edu.au
                © 2014 Akadémiai Kiadó

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 3 October 2012
                : 14 March 2014
                : 28 June 2014
                : 17 August 2014
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                stress, anger, hostility, aggression


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