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      Phylogeography and population structure of - grypotus (Richardson, 1846) as revealed by mitochondrial control region sequences

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          The 137 individuals of Johnius grypotus were collected from seven localities from the Bohai Sea to the East China Sea. A 549 base pair (bp) fragment of the hypervariable region of the mtDNA control region was sequenced to examine genetic diversity and population structure. The populations of J. grypotus showed high haplotype diversity ( h) with a range from 0.7500 to 0.9740 and low nucleotide diversity ( π) with a range from 0.0024 to 0.0067. Low and non-significant genetic differentiation was estimated among populations except for North Yellow Sea population, which has a significant genetic difference with other populations. The demographic history examined by mismatch distribution analyses and Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) analyses revealed that a sudden population expansion occurred almost 20 to 40 thousand years before. Relatively recent population expansion in the last glacial period, large dispersal of eggs or larvae carried by coastal current, and the homogeneity of living environment may have an important influence on the population genetic pattern.

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          MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods.

          Comparative analysis of molecular sequence data is essential for reconstructing the evolutionary histories of species and inferring the nature and extent of selective forces shaping the evolution of genes and species. Here, we announce the release of Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 5 (MEGA5), which is a user-friendly software for mining online databases, building sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees, and using methods of evolutionary bioinformatics in basic biology, biomedicine, and evolution. The newest addition in MEGA5 is a collection of maximum likelihood (ML) analyses for inferring evolutionary trees, selecting best-fit substitution models (nucleotide or amino acid), inferring ancestral states and sequences (along with probabilities), and estimating evolutionary rates site-by-site. In computer simulation analyses, ML tree inference algorithms in MEGA5 compared favorably with other software packages in terms of computational efficiency and the accuracy of the estimates of phylogenetic trees, substitution parameters, and rate variation among sites. The MEGA user interface has now been enhanced to be activity driven to make it easier for the use of both beginners and experienced scientists. This version of MEGA is intended for the Windows platform, and it has been configured for effective use on Mac OS X and Linux desktops. It is available free of charge from http://www.megasoftware.net.
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            Arlequin suite ver 3.5: a new series of programs to perform population genetics analyses under Linux and Windows.

            We present here a new version of the Arlequin program available under three different forms: a Windows graphical version (Winarl35), a console version of Arlequin (arlecore), and a specific console version to compute summary statistics (arlsumstat). The command-line versions run under both Linux and Windows. The main innovations of the new version include enhanced outputs in XML format, the possibility to embed graphics displaying computation results directly into output files, and the implementation of a new method to detect loci under selection from genome scans. Command-line versions are designed to handle large series of files, and arlsumstat can be used to generate summary statistics from simulated data sets within an Approximate Bayesian Computation framework. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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              Phylogeographic insights into cryptic glacial refugia.

              The glacial episodes of the Quaternary (2.6 million years ago-present) were a major factor in shaping the present-day distributions of extant flora and fauna, with expansions and contractions of the ice sheets rendering large areas uninhabitable for most species. Fossil records suggest that many species survived glacial maxima by retreating to refugia, usually at lower latitudes. Recently, phylogeographic studies have given support to the existence of previously unknown, or cryptic, refugia. Here we summarise many of these insights into the glacial histories of species in cryptic refugia gained through phylogeographic approaches. Understanding such refugia might be important as the Earth heads into another period of climate change, in terms of predicting the effects on species distribution and survival.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                ZooKeys
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2017
                3 October 2017
                : 705
                : 143-158
                Affiliations
                [1 ] The First Institute of Oceanography, SOA, Qingdao, Shandong, 266003, P.R. China
                [2 ] South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Science, Guangzhou 510300, P.R. China
                [3 ] Fishery College, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, Zhejiang, 316000, P.R. China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Tianxiang Gao ( gaotianxiang06@ 123456163.com ); Hanxiang Xu ( hxxu@ 123456vip.sina.com )

                Academic editor: Maria Bichuette

                Article
                10.3897/zookeys.705.13001
                5674069
                29118616
                Linlin Zhao, Dan Yi, Chunhou Li, Dianrong Sun, Hanxiang Xu, Tianxiang Gao

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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                Research Article

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