Surface-modified metal implants incorporating different ions have been employed in the biomedical field as bioactive dental implants with good osseointegration properties. However, the molecular mechanism through which surface coatings exert the biological activity is not fully understood, and the effects have been difficult to achieve, especially in the osteopenic bone. In this study, We examined the effect of zinc-modified calcium silicate coatings with two different Zn contents to induce osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived pericytes (BM-PCs) and osteogenetic efficiency in ovariectomised rabbits. Ti-6Al-4V with zinc-modified calcium silicate coatings not only enhanced proliferation but also promoted osteogenic differentiation and mineralized matrix deposition of rat BM-PCs as the zinc content and culture time increased in vitro. The associated molecular mechanisms were investigated by Q-PCR and Western blotting, revealing that TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway plays a direct and significant role in regulating BM-PCs osteoblastic differentiation on Zn-modified coatings. Furthermore, in vivo results that revealed Zn-modified calcium silicate coatings significantly promoted new bone formation around the implant surface in osteopenic rabbits as the Zn content and exposure time increased. Therefore, Zn-modified calcium silicate coatings can improve implant osseointegration in the condition of osteopenia, which may be beneficial for patients suffering from osteoporosis-related fractures.