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      Simultaneous Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Hepatitis B-Hepatitis C Point-of-Care Tests Improve Outcomes in Linkage-to-Care: Results of a Randomized Control Trial in Persons Without Healthcare Coverage

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          In this randomized-control trial, conducted at a free clinic in France for predominately immigrant populations without healthcare, we demonstrate that simultaneous HIV/HBV/HCV point-of-care rapid testing improves screening outcomes. Increased awareness of infection status likely helped link these patients to care.


          Background.  In Europe and the United States, more than two thirds of individuals infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and 15%–30% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals are unaware of their infection status. Simultaneous HIV-, HBV-, and HCV-rapid tests could help improve infection awareness and linkage-to-care in particularly vulnerable populations.

          Methods.  The OptiScreen III study was a single-center, randomized, control trial conducted at a free clinic (“Médecins du Monde”, Paris, France). Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive 1 of 2 interventions testing for HIV, HBV, and HCV: standard serology-based testing (S-arm) or point-of-care rapid testing (RT-arm). The main study endpoints were the proportion of participants who became aware of their HIV, HBV, and HCV status and who were linked to care when testing positive.

          Results.  A total of 324 individuals, representing mainly African immigrants, were included. In the S-arm, 115 of 162 (71.0%) participants performed a blood draw and 104 of 162 (64.2%) retrieved their test result. In comparison, 159 of 162 (98.2%) of participants randomized to the RT-arm obtained their results ( P < .001). Of the 38 (11.7%) participants testing positive (HIV, n = 7; HBV, n = 23; HCV, n = 8), 15 of 18 (83.3%) in the S-arm and 18 of 20 (90.0%) in the RT-arm were linked-to-care ( P = .7). In post hoc analysis assuming the same disease prevalence in those without obtaining test results, difference in linkage-to-care was more pronounced (S-arm = 60.0% vs RT-arm = 90.0%; P = .04).

          Conclusions.  In a highly at-risk population for chronic viral infections, the simultaneous use of HIV, HBV, and HCV point-of-care tests clearly improves the “cascade of screening” and quite possibly linkage-to-care.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Chronic hepatitis B.

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            Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settings.

            These recommendations for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing are intended for all health-care providers in the public and private sectors, including those working in hospital emergency departments, urgent care clinics, inpatient services, substance abuse treatment clinics, public health clinics, community clinics, correctional health-care facilities, and primary care settings. The recommendations address HIV testing in health-care settings only. They do not modify existing guidelines concerning HIV counseling, testing, and referral for persons at high risk for HIV who seek or receive HIV testing in nonclinical settings (e.g., community-based organizations, outreach settings, or mobile vans). The objectives of these recommendations are to increase HIV screening of patients, including pregnant women, in health-care settings; foster earlier detection of HIV infection; identify and counsel persons with unrecognized HIV infection and link them to clinical and prevention services; and further reduce perinatal transmission of HIV in the United States. These revised recommendations update previous recommendations for HIV testing in health-care settings and for screening of pregnant women (CDC. Recommendations for HIV testing services for inpatients and outpatients in acute-care hospital settings. MMWR 1993;42[No. RR-2]:1-10; CDC. Revised guidelines for HIV counseling, testing, and referral. MMWR 2001;50[No. RR-19]:1-62; and CDC. Revised recommendations for HIV screening of pregnant women. MMWR 2001;50[No. RR-19]:63-85). Major revisions from previously published guidelines are as follows: For patients in all health-care settings HIV screening is recommended for patients in all health-care settings after the patient is notified that testing will be performed unless the patient declines (opt-out screening). Persons at high risk for HIV infection should be screened for HIV at least annually. Separate written consent for HIV testing should not be required; general consent for medical care should be considered sufficient to encompass consent for HIV testing. Prevention counseling should not be required with HIV diagnostic testing or as part of HIV screening programs in health-care settings. For pregnant women HIV screening should be included in the routine panel of prenatal screening tests for all pregnant women. HIV screening is recommended after the patient is notified that testing will be performed unless the patient declines (opt-out screening). Separate written consent for HIV testing should not be required; general consent for medical care should be considered sufficient to encompass consent for HIV testing. Repeat screening in the third trimester is recommended in certain jurisdictions with elevated rates of HIV infection among pregnant women.
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              Treatment of hepatitis C: a systematic review.

              Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 185 million individuals worldwide. Twenty percent of patients chronically infected with HCV progress to cirrhosis. New, simpler therapeutics using direct-acting antivirals that target various stages of the HCV life cycle are in development to eradicate HCV without concomitant interferon.

                Author and article information

                Open Forum Infect Dis
                Open Forum Infect Dis
                Open Forum Infectious Diseases
                Oxford University Press
                December 2015
                26 October 2015
                : 2
                : 4
                [1 ]Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre-et-Marie-Curie Paris 06, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Institut Pierre Louis d’Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
                [2 ]Service de Maladies Infectieuses, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) St. Antoine
                [3 ]Laboratoire de Virologie, CHU St. Antoine
                [4 ]INSERM U1135 Centre d'Immunologie et des Maladies Infectieuses
                [5 ]Département de Santé Publique, Hôpital St-Antoine, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris
                [6 ]Médecins du Monde, Centre d'Accueil de Soins et d'Orientation
                [7 ]Médecins du Monde, Direction des Missions France , Paris, France
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Julie Bottero, MD, PhD, Service de Maladies Infectieuses – Hôpital St. Antoine, 184, rue du Faubourg St. Antoine, Paris 75012, France ( julie.bottero@ 123456aphp.fr ).
                © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs licence ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial reproduction and distribution of the work, in any medium, provided the original work is not altered or transformed in any way, and that the work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com.

                Page count
                Pages: 8
                Funded by: Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida (ANRS) et les Hépatites Virales
                Funded by: Gilead Sciences http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100005564
                Funded by: Roche http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100004337
                Funded by: Biomerieux
                Major Articles
                Custom metadata
                Fall 2015


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