+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Two-Photon Microscopy of Vital Murine Elastic and Muscular Arteries


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Understanding vascular pathologies requires insight in the structure and function, and, hence, an imaging technique combining subcellular resolution, large penetration depth, and optical sectioning. We evaluated the applicability of two-photon laser-scanning microscopy (TPLSM) in large elastic and small muscular arteries under physiological conditions. Elastic (carotid) and muscular (uterine, mesenteric) arteries of C57BL/6 mice were mounted in a perfusion chamber. TPLSM was used to assess the viability of arteries and to visualize the structural components elastin, collagen, nuclei, and endothelial glycocalyx (EG). Functionality was determined using diameter changes in response to noradrenaline and acetylcholine. Viability and functionality were maintained up to 4 h, enabling the assessment of structure-function relationships. Structural vessel wall components differed between elastic and muscular arteries: size (1.3 vs. 2.1 µm) and density (0.045 vs. 0.57 µm<sup>–2</sup>) of internal elastic lamina fenestrae, smooth muscle cell density (3.50 vs. 1.53 µm<sup>–3</sup>), number of elastic laminae (3 vs. 2), and adventitial collagen structure (tortuous vs. straight). EG in elastic arteries was 4.5 µm thick, covering 66% of the endothelial surface. TPLSM enables visualization and quantification of subcellular structures in vital and functional elastic and muscular murine arteries, allowing unraveling of structure-function relationships in healthy and diseased arteries.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 22

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Multiphoton microscopy in life sciences.

           K König (2000)
          Near infrared (NIR) multiphoton microscopy is becoming a novel optical tool of choice for fluorescence imaging with high spatial and temporal resolution, diagnostics, photochemistry and nanoprocessing within living cells and tissues. Three-dimensional fluorescence imaging based on non-resonant two-photon or three-photon fluorophor excitation requires light intensities in the range of MW cm(-2) to GW cm(-2), which can be derived by diffraction limited focusing of continuous wave and pulsed NIR laser radiation. NIR lasers can be employed as the excitation source for multifluorophor multiphoton excitation and hence multicolour imaging. In combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), this novel approach can be used for multi-gene detection (multiphoton multicolour FISH). Owing to the high NIR penetration depth, non-invasive optical biopsies can be obtained from patients and ex vivo tissue by morphological and functional fluorescence imaging of endogenous fluorophores such as NAD(P)H, flavin, lipofuscin, porphyrins, collagen and elastin. Recent botanical applications of multiphoton microscopy include depth-resolved imaging of pigments (chlorophyll) and green fluorescent proteins as well as non-invasive fluorophore loading into single living plant cells. Non-destructive fluorescence imaging with multiphoton microscopes is limited to an optical window. Above certain intensities, multiphoton laser microscopy leads to impaired cellular reproduction, formation of giant cells, oxidative stress and apoptosis-like cell death. Major intracellular targets of photodamage in animal cells are mitochondria as well as the Golgi apparatus. The damage is most likely based on a two-photon excitation process rather than a one-photon or three-photon event. Picosecond and femtosecond laser microscopes therefore provide approximately the same safe relative optical window for two-photon vital cell studies. In labelled cells, additional phototoxic effects may occur via photodynamic action. This has been demonstrated for aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX and other porphyrin sensitizers in cells. When the light intensity in NIR microscopes is increased to TW cm(-2) levels, highly localized optical breakdown and plasma formation do occur. These femtosecond NIR laser microscopes can also be used as novel ultraprecise nanosurgical tools with cut sizes between 100 nm and 300 nm. Using the versatile nanoscalpel, intracellular dissection of chromosomes within living cells can be performed without perturbing the outer cell membrane. Moreover, cells remain alive. Non-invasive NIR laser surgery within a living cell or within an organelle is therefore possible.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues.

            We find that several key endogenous protein structures give rise to intense second-harmonic generation (SHG)-nonabsorptive frequency doubling of an excitation laser line. Second-harmonic imaging microscopy (SHIM) on a laser-scanning system proves, therefore, to be a powerful and unique tool for high-resolution, high-contrast, three-dimensional studies of live cell and tissue architecture. Unlike fluorescence, SHG suffers no inherent photobleaching or toxicity and does not require exogenous labels. Unlike polarization microscopy, SHIM provides intrinsic confocality and deep sectioning in complex tissues. In this study, we demonstrate the clarity of SHIM optical sectioning within unfixed, unstained thick specimens. SHIM and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) were combined in a dual-mode nonlinear microscopy to elucidate the molecular sources of SHG in live cells and tissues. SHG arose not only from coiled-coil complexes within connective tissues and muscle thick filaments, but also from microtubule arrays within interphase and mitotic cells. Both polarization dependence and a local symmetry cancellation effect of SHG allowed the signal from species generating the second harmonic to be decoded, by ratiometric correlation with TPEF, to yield information on local structure below optical resolution. The physical origin of SHG within these tissues is addressed and is attributed to the laser interaction with dipolar protein structures that is enhanced by the intrinsic chirality of the protein helices.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence.

              Multiphoton microscopy relies on nonlinear light-matter interactions to provide contrast and optical sectioning capability for high-resolution imaging. Most multiphoton microscopy studies in biological systems have relied on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) to produce images. With increasing applications of multiphoton microscopy to thick-tissue "intravital" imaging, second-harmonic generation (SHG) from structural proteins has emerged as a potentially important new contrast mechanism. However, SHG is typically detected in transmission mode, thus limiting TPEF/SHG coregistration and its practical utility for in vivo thick-tissue applications. In this study, we use a broad range of excitation wavelengths (730-880 nm) to demonstrate that TPEF/SHG coregistration can easily be achieved in unstained tissues by using a simple backscattering geometry. The combined TPEF/SHG technique was applied to imaging a three-dimensional organotypic tissue model (RAFT). The structural and molecular origin of the image-forming signal from the various tissue constituents was determined by simultaneous spectroscopic measurements and confirming immunofluorescence staining. Our results show that at shorter excitation wavelengths (<800 nm), the signal emitted from the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a combination of SHG and TPEF from collagen, whereas at longer excitation wavelengths the ECM signal is exclusively due to SHG. Endogenous cellular signals are consistent with TPEF spectra of cofactors NAD(P)H and FAD at all excitation wavelengths. The reflected SHG intensity follows a quadratic dependence on the excitation power, decays exponentially with depth, and exhibits a spectral dependence in accordance with previous theoretical studies. The use of SHG and TPEF in combination provides complementary information that allows noninvasive, spatially localized in vivo characterization of cell-ECM interactions in unstained thick tissues.

                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                February 2007
                28 December 2006
                : 44
                : 2
                : 87-98
                Departments of aBiophysics, bPharmacology, and cPhysiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, and dDepartment of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
                98259 J Vasc Res 2007;44:87–98
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, References: 41, Pages: 12
                Research Paper


                Comment on this article