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      In vivo and in vitro anti-sepsis effects of physcion 8- O- β- glucopyranoside extracted from Rumex japonicus

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          Abstract

          The present study was designed to investigate the anti-sepsis effects of physcion 8- O- β-glucopyranoside (POG) isolated from Rumex japonicas and explore its possible pharmacological mechanisms. POG was extracted from R. japonicas by bioactivity-guided isolation with the anti-sepsis agents. Survival analysis in septic mouse induced by LPS and heat-killed Escherichia coli were used to evaluate the protective effect of POG (40 mg·kg −1, i.p.) on sepsis. Cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in RAW 264.7 cells induced by LPS (100 ng·mL −1) were determined by ELISA. In addition, the proteins expressions of TLR2 and TLR4 were determined by Western blotting assay. Our results demonstrated that POG (40 mg·kg −1, i.p.) possessed significant protective activity on the endotoxemic mice. The POG treatment (20, 40, and 80 μg·mL −1) significantly decreased the TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 induced by LPS ( P < 0.01) in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the TLR4 and TLR2 proteins were also down-regulated by POG at 20 ( P < 0.01), 40 ( P < 0.01), and 80 μg·mL –1 ( P < 0.01). The present study demonstrated that the POG extracted from R. japonicas possessed significant anti-sepsis effect on endotoxemic mice, and can be developed as a novel drug for treating sepsis in the future.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles in IL-1β transgenic mice subjected to the lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis.

          Sepsis is a significant public healthcare problem, affecting millions of people worldwide each year, killing one in four, and increasing in incidence. Thus, advanced therapeutic strategies are required to treat sepsis patients. Curcumin (Cur) is a promising anti-inflammatory agent for various inflammatory disorders. However, the therapeutic efficacy of Cur is limited due to poor aqueous solubility, rapid degradation, and low bioavailability. The aims of this study were to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Cur-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (Cur-SLNs) for sepsis treatment. A firefly luciferase transgenic mouse was used to monitor real time interleukin 1β (IL-1β) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis model to examine the protective effect of Cur-SLNs, and to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms. Mice (female or male) were intraperitoneally administered with free Cur or Cur-SLNs (30 mg/kg) before the intraperitoneal delivery of LPS (3 mg/kg). Our results indicated that Cur-SLNs can effectively reduced levels of IL-1β expression compared to free Cur, especially at 3 h after LPS injection. Also, Cur-SLNs significantly decreased the expression of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β as compared with free Cur, but augmented anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by ELISA assay. Further, marked alleviation of the sepsis-induced damage to organs, including kidney, liver, and heart was observed with Cur-SLNs treatment as determined by hematoxylin/eosin-staining. Western blot analyses revealed that Cur-SLNs can significantly lower the expression levels of TLR4, TLR2, and TNF-α in lymph node tissues. Meanwhile, it showed suppressions of NF-κB activation and IκBα degradation levels. In conclusion, we suggested that Cur-SLNs may be used as an effective and safe therapeutic agent in treating sepsis in high-risk patient groups.
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            Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2-9 agonists-induced cytokines and chemokines: I. Comparison with T cell receptor-induced responses.

            The cells of innate and adaptive immunity, although activated by different ligands, engage in cross talk to ensure a successful immune outcome. To better understand this interaction, we examined the demographic picture of individual TLR (TLRs 2-9) -driven profiles of eleven cytokines (IFN-alpha/beta, IFN-gamma, IL-12p40/IL-12p70, IL-4, 1L-13, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-10) and four chemokines (MCP-1, MIP1beta, IL-8, and RANTES), and compared them with direct T-cell receptor triggered responses in an assay platform using human PBMCs. We find that T-cell activation by a combination of anti-CD3/anti-CD28/PHA induced a dominant IL-2, IL-13, and Type-II interferon (IFN-gamma) response without major IL-12 and little Type-I interferon (IFN-alphabeta) release. In contrast, TLR7 and TLR9 agonists induced high levels of Type-I interferons. The highest IFN-gamma levels were displayed by TLR8 and TLR7/8 agonists, which also induced the highest levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta. Amongst endosomal TLRs, TLR7 displayed a unique profile producing weak IL-12, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-8. TLR7 and TLR9 resembled each other in their cytokine profile but differed in MIP-1beta and MCP1 chemokine profiles. Gram positive (TLR2, TLR2/6) and gram negative (TLR4) pathogen-derived TLR agonists displayed significant similarities in profile, but not in potency. TLR5 and TLR2/6 agonists paralleled TLR2 and TLR4 in generating pro-inflammatory chemokines MCP-1, MIP-1beta, RANTES, and IL-8 but yielded weak TNF-alpha and IL-1 responses. Taken together, the data show that diverse TLR agonists, despite their operation through common pathways induce distinct cytokine/chemokine profiles that in turn have little or no overlap with TCR-mediated response.
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              New concepts in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of bacteremia and sepsis.

              Bacteremia and sepsis are major health concerns. Despite intensive research, there are only a limited number of successful treatment options, and it is difficult to see the forest for the trees when considering the pathogenesis of this condition. Studies in the last decade have shown that a major pathophysiologic event in sepsis is the progression from proinflammation to an immunosuppressive state. However, recent genome-based data indicate that sepsis-related inflammatory responses are highly variable, which calls in question the classic two-phase model of sepsis. Adequate and timely antimicrobial treatment is a cornerstone for survival in patients with bacteremia and sepsis. However, microbial resistance has emerged as an increasing challenge for clinicians and with an increasing number of resistant pathogens causing infections, selection of empiric antimicrobial treatment has become difficult. Treatment options currently under way are targeted to enhance immune responses, rebalance the regulation of the dysregulated immune system, remove endotoxin and block/inhibit apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CJNM
                Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
                Elsevier
                1875-5364
                20 July 2017
                : 15
                : 7
                : 534-539
                Affiliations
                1Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China
                2Department of Anesthesiology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China
                3Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author: CHEN Zhong-Qing, E-mail: zqchensmuh@ 123456126.com

                ΔCo-first author.

                These authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

                Article
                S1875-5364(17)30079-1
                10.1016/S1875-5364(17)30079-1
                28807227
                Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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