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      Redescription of Protoopalina pingi Nie, 1935 inhabiting the recta of Hylarana guentheri and Pelophylax nigromaculatus in China Translated title: Redescription de Protoopalina pingi Nie, 1935, du rectum de Hylarana guentheri et Pelophylax nigromaculatus en Chine

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          A redescription of Protoopalina pingi Nie, 1935 is presented in this paper to complete Nie’s description at both light and scanning electron microscope levels. These organisms were collected from the recta of the frogs Hylarana guentheri Boulenger, 1882 and Pelophylax nigromaculatus Hallowell, 1861 from Jialing River, Sichuan Province and Honghu Lake, Hubei Province, respectively, in China. This is the first record of its occurrence in H. guentheri and P. nigromaculatus. The body of P. pingi is elongated and somewhat spindle-like in shape, slightly narrowed and bluntly rounded at the anterior extremity, while the posterior end is tapering or sharply pointed. The body surface is thickly flagellated, with the caudal tip being barren. The falx, located at the margin of the anterior end, is composed of a narrow band of kinetosomes. Four round or oval-shaped nuclei, usually arranged in a straight line, are situated in the middle region of the body. Comparisons are made between P. pingi and its congeners.

          Translated abstract

          Une redescription de Protoopalina pingi Nie, 1935 est présentée dans cet article, pour compléter la description de Nie par la microscopie photonique et électronique. Ces organismes ont été recueillis à partir du rectum des grenouilles Hylarana guentheri et Pelophylax nigromaculatus, respectivement de la rivière Jialing dans la province du Sichuan et du Lac Honghu dans la province du Hubei, en Chine. C’est la première mention chez H. guentheri et P. nigromaculatus. Le corps de P. pingi est allongé et fuselé, légèrement rétréci et grossièrement arrondi à l’extrémité antérieure, tandis que l’extrémité postérieure est effilée ou très pointue. La surface du corps est fortement flagellée, mais la pointe caudale est nue. La faux, situé sur la marge de l’extrémité antérieure, est composée d’une bande étroite de cinétosomes. Quatre noyaux ronds ou ovales, généralement disposés le long d’une ligne droite, sont situés dans la région médiane du corps. Des comparaisons sont faites entre P. pingi et ses congénères.

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          A revised six-kingdom system of life.

          A revised six-kingdom system of life is presented, down to the level of infraphylum. As in my 1983 system Bacteria are treated as a single kingdom, and eukaryotes are divided into only five kingdoms: Protozoa, Animalia, Fungi, Plantae and Chromista. Intermediate high level categories (superkingdom, subkingdom, branch, infrakingdom, superphylum, subphylum and infraphylum) are extensively used to avoid splitting organisms into an excessive number of kingdoms and phyla (60 only being recognized). The two 'zoological' kingdoms, Protozoa and Animalia, are subject to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the kingdom Bacteria to the International Code of Bacteriological Nomenclature, and the three 'botanical' kingdoms (Plantae, Fungi, Chromista) to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. Circumscriptions of the kingdoms Bacteria and Plantae remain unchanged since Cavalier-Smith (1981). The kingdom Fungi is expanded by adding Microsporidia, because of protein sequence evidence that these amitochondrial intracellular parasites are related to conventional Fungi, not Protozoa. Fungi are subdivided into four phyla and 20 classes; fungal classification at the rank of subclass and above is comprehensively revised. The kingdoms Protozoa and Animalia are modified in the light of molecular phylogenetic evidence that Myxozoa are actually Animalia, not Protozoa, and that mesozoans are related to bilaterian animals. Animalia are divided into four subkingdoms: Radiata (phyla Porifera, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Ctenophora), Myxozoa, Mesozoa and Bilateria (bilateral animals: all other phyla). Several new higher level groupings are made in the animal kingdom including three new phyla: Acanthognatha (rotifers, acanthocephalans, gastrotrichs, gnathostomulids), Brachiozoa (brachiopods and phoronids) and Lobopoda (onychophorans and tardigrades), so only 23 animal phyla are recognized. Archezoa, here restricted to the phyla Metamonada and Trichozoa, are treated as a subkingdom within Protozoa, as in my 1983 six-kingdom system, not as a separate kingdom. The recently revised phylum Rhizopoda is modified further by adding more flagellates and removing some 'rhizopods' and is therefore renamed Cercozoa. The number of protozoan phyla is reduced by grouping Mycetozoa and Archamoebae (both now infraphyla) as a new subphylum Conosa within the phylum Amoebozoa alongside the subphylum Lobosa, which now includes both the traditional aerobic lobosean amoebae and Multicilia. Haplosporidia and the (formerly microsporidian) metchnikovellids are now both placed within the phylum Sporozoa. These changes make a total of only 13 currently recognized protozoan phyla, which are grouped into two subkingdoms: Archezoa and Neozoa the latter is modified in circumscription by adding the Discicristata, a new infrakingdom comprising the phyla Percolozoa and Euglenozoa). These changes are discussed in relation to the principles of megasystematics, here defined as systematics that concentrates on the higher levels of classes, phyla, and kingdoms. These principles also make it desirable to rank Archaebacteria as an infrakingdom of the kingdom Bacteria, not as a separate kingdom. Archaebacteria are grouped with the infrakingdom Posibacteria to form a new subkingdom, Unibacteria, comprising all bacteria bounded by a single membrane. The bacterial subkingdom Negibacteria, with separate cytoplasmic and outer membranes, is subdivided into two infrakingdoms: Lipobacteria, which lack lipopolysaccharide and have only phospholipids in the outer membrane, and Glycobacteria, with lipopolysaccharides in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane and phospholipids in its inner leaflet. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
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            Human parasite finds taxonomic home.

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              Phylogenetic position of Karotomorpha and paraphyly of Proteromonadidae.


                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                12 September 2014
                : 21
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2014/01 )
                [1 ] Hubei Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Wuhan Polytechnic University Wuhan 430023 China
                [2 ] Institute of Hydroecology, Ministry of Water Resources & Chinese Academy of Sciences Wuhan 430079 China
                [3 ] Sea Lice Research Centre, Department of Biology, University of Bergen Bergen 5020 Norway
                [4 ] Hubei Collaborative Innovation Centre for Freshwater Aquaculture Wuhan 430070 China
                Author notes

                Weidong Li and Chong Wang contributed equally to this work.

                [* ]Corresponding author: liming82101920@ 123456gmail.com
                parasite140015 10.1051/parasite/2014021
                © W. Li et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 24, Pages: 6
                Research Article


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