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      Impact of Microbial Composition of Cambodian Traditional Dried Starters (Dombea) on Flavor Compounds of Rice Wine: Combining Amplicon Sequencing With HP-SPME-GCMS


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          Dombae is a traditional ferment starter which has been used for starchy based wine production in Cambodia. However, the production technology of rice wine in Cambodia is not optimized. The current study aimed to investigate the microbiota associated in five ferment starters and the effect of a traditional fermentation process using a metagenomics sequencing analysis and HS-SPME-GCMS for the characterization of the aromatic profiles at the end of fermentation. Most of bacteria identified in this study were lactic acid bacteria including Weissella cibaria, Pediococcus sp. MMZ60A, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus plantarum. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera were found to be abundant yeasts while the only amylolytic filamentous fungus was Rhizopus oryzae. A total of 25 aromatic compounds were detected and identified as esters, alcohols, acids, ketones and aldehydes. The alcohol group was dominant in each rice wine. Significant changes were observed at the level of microbial communities during fermentation, suggesting microbial succession for the assimilation of starch and subsequently assimilation of fermentation by-products leading to the production of flavor compounds. At this level, the presence of Weissella, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus genus was strongly correlated with most of the flavor compounds detected.

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          Estimating the number of species in a stochastic abundance model.

           Anne Chao,  John Bunge (2002)
          Consider a stochastic abundance model in which the species arrive in the sample according to independent Poisson processes, where the abundance parameters of the processes follow a gamma distribution. We propose a new estimator of the number of species for this model. The estimator takes the form of the number of duplicated species (i.e., species represented by two or more individuals) divided by an estimated duplication fraction. The duplication fraction is estimated from all frequencies including singleton information. The new estimator is closely related to the sample coverage estimator presented by Chao and Lee (1992, Journal of the American Statistical Association 87, 210-217). We illustrate the procedure using the Malayan butterfly data discussed by Fisher, Corbet, and Williams (1943, Journal of Animal Ecology 12, 42-58) and a 1989 Christmas Bird Count dataset collected in Florida, U.S.A. Simulation studies show that this estimator compares well with maximum likelihood estimators (i.e., empirical Bayes estimators from the Bayesian viewpoint) for which an iterative numerical procedure is needed and may be infeasible.
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            PCR-DGGE fingerprinting: novel strategies for detection of microbes in food.

            Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting was recently introduced into food microbiology. This paper describes the technique and reports on the state-of-the-art application of this technique to food and food-related ecosystems. Applications of PCR-DGGE in several fields of food microbiology are reviewed: the identification of microorganisms isolated from food, the evaluation of microbial diversity during food fermentation, and microbiological and commercial food quality assessment. Potentials and limitations of this culture-independent approach in food microbiology are indicated and future perspectives are discussed.
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              Yeast Creates a Niche for Symbiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria through Nitrogen Overflow

              Summary Many microorganisms live in communities and depend on metabolites secreted by fellow community members for survival. Yet our knowledge of interspecies metabolic dependencies is limited to few communities with small number of exchanged metabolites, and even less is known about cellular regulation facilitating metabolic exchange. Here we show how yeast enables growth of lactic acid bacteria through endogenous, multi-component, cross-feeding in a readily established community. In nitrogen-rich environments, Saccharomyces cerevisiae adjusts its metabolism by secreting a pool of metabolites, especially amino acids, and thereby enables survival of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis. Quantity of the available nitrogen sources and the status of nitrogen catabolite repression pathways jointly modulate this niche creation. We demonstrate how nitrogen overflow by yeast benefits L. plantarum in grape juice, and contributes to emergence of mutualism with L. lactis in a medium with lactose. Our results illustrate how metabolic decisions of an individual species can benefit others.

                Author and article information

                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                08 May 2018
                : 9
                1Terra Research Centre, Microbial Processes and Interactions, University of Liège, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech , Gembloux, Belgium
                2Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Institute of Technology of Cambodia , Phnom Penh, Cambodia
                3Food Science Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Fundamental and Applied Research for Animal and Health, University of Liège , Liège, Belgium
                4General and Organic Chemistry, Université de Liège – Gembloux Agro-BioTech , Gembloux, Belgium
                Author notes

                Edited by: Sandra Torriani, University of Verona, Italy

                Reviewed by: Jyoti Prakash Tamang, Sikkim University, India; Shabarinath Srikumar, University College Dublin, Ireland

                *Correspondence: Frank Delvigne f.delvigne@ 123456uliege.be

                This article was submitted to Food Microbiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Copyright © 2018 Ly, Mith, Tarayre, Taminiau, Daube, Fauconnier and Delvigne.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 64, Pages: 15, Words: 9276
                Original Research


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