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      Abrufeffekte im Gedächtnis: Ein Überblick zur aktuellen Grundlagenforschung


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          Zusammenfassung. Der Frage, wie Erinnern das Gedächtnis formt, wurde in der Kognitiven Psychologie in letzter Zeit große Aufmerksamkeit gewidmet. Testungseffekte, die in einer durch Gedächtnisabruf in der Folge verbesserten Zugänglichkeit von Gedächtniseinträgen bestehen, wurden in diesem Zusammenhang insbesondere auch hinsichtlich ihres pädagogischen Potentials diskutiert. Neben erleichterter Zugänglichkeit kann Gedächtnisabruf allerdings auch Vergessen nicht abgerufener Information verursachen. Der aktuelle Stand der Grundlagenforschung zu Abrufeffekten wird in diesem Überblicksartikel dargestellt und eine integrative Betrachtung unterschiedlicher Arten von Abrufeffekten unter Berücksichtigung wichtiger Moderatorvariablen versucht.

          Retrieval Effects on Memory: Overview of Current Basic Research

          Abstract. The question as to how retrieval shapes memory has received much attention in cognitive psychology recently. In particular, testing effects consisting of enhanced accessibility of memory representations as a consequence of memory retrieval have been discussed also with regard to their educational potential. However, besides enhanced accessibility, memory retrieval also can cause forgetting of non-retrieved information. Here, we describe the present state of basic research on retrieval effects and try to integrate different kinds of retrieval effects, with a special consideration of important moderator variables.

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          The Power of Testing Memory: Basic Research and Implications for Educational Practice.

          A powerful way of improving one's memory for material is to be tested on that material. Tests enhance later retention more than additional study of the material, even when tests are given without feedback. This surprising phenomenon is called the testing effect, and although it has been studied by cognitive psychologists sporadically over the years, today there is a renewed effort to learn why testing is effective and to apply testing in educational settings. In this article, we selectively review laboratory studies that reveal the power of testing in improving retention and then turn to studies that demonstrate the basic effects in educational settings. We also consider the related concepts of dynamic testing and formative assessment as other means of using tests to improve learning. Finally, we consider some negative consequences of testing that may occur in certain circumstances, though these negative effects are often small and do not cancel out the large positive effects of testing. Frequent testing in the classroom may boost educational achievement at all levels of education.
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            The critical role of retrieval practice in long-term retention.

            Learning is usually thought to occur during episodes of studying, whereas retrieval of information on testing simply serves to assess what was learned. We review research that contradicts this traditional view by demonstrating that retrieval practice is actually a powerful mnemonic enhancer, often producing large gains in long-term retention relative to repeated studying. Retrieval practice is often effective even without feedback (i.e. giving the correct answer), but feedback enhances the benefits of testing. In addition, retrieval practice promotes the acquisition of knowledge that can be flexibly retrieved and transferred to different contexts. The power of retrieval practice in consolidating memories has important implications for both the study of memory and its application to educational practice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Rethinking interference theory: Executive control and the mechanisms of forgetting


                Author and article information

                Psychologische Rundschau
                Hogrefe Verlag, Göttingen
                October 2021
                : 72
                : 4
                : 249-258
                [ 1 ]Pädagogische Hochschule Ludwigsburg
                [ 2 ]Universität Trier
                Author notes
                apl. Prof. Dr. Tobias Tempel, PH Ludwigsburg, Reuteallee 46, 71634 Ludwigburg, tobias.tempel@ 123456ph-ludwigsburg.de
                Copyright @ 2021

                retrieval-induced forgetting,forward effect of testing,test-potentiated learning,testing effect,abrufinduziertes Vergessen,Testungs-Vorwärtseffekt,testpotenziertes Lernen,Testungseffekt


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