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      A Review of the Effects of Major Atmospheric Pollutants on Pollen Grains, Pollen Content, and Allergenicity

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          This review summarizes the available data related to the effects of air pollution on pollen grains from different plant species. Several studies carried out either on in situ harvested pollen or on pollen exposed in different places more or less polluted are presented and discussed. The different experimental procedures used to monitor the impact of pollution on pollen grains and on various produced external or internal subparticles are listed. Physicochemical and biological effects of artificial pollution (gaseous and particulate) on pollen from different plants, in different laboratory conditions, are considered. The effects of polluted pollen grains, subparticles, and derived aeroallergens in animal models, in in vitro cell culture, on healthy human and allergic patients are described. Combined effects of atmospheric pollutants and pollen grains-derived biological material on allergic population are specifically discussed. Within the notion of “ polluen,” some methodological biases are underlined and research tracks in this field are proposed.

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          Most cited references 292

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          Bioaerosol health effects and exposure assessment: progress and prospects.

          Exposures to bioaerosols in the occupational environment are associated with a wide range of health effects with major public health impact, including infectious diseases, acute toxic effects, allergies and cancer. Respiratory symptoms and lung function impairment are the most widely studied and probably among the most important bioaerosol-associated health effects. In addition to these adverse health effects some protective effects of microbial exposure on atopy and atopic conditions has also been suggested. New industrial activities have emerged in recent years in which exposures to bioaerosols can be abundant, e.g. the waste recycling and composting industry, biotechnology industries producing highly purified enzymes and the detergent and food industries that make use of these enzymes. Dose-response relationships have not been established for most biological agents and knowledge about threshold values is sparse. Exposure limits are available for some contaminants, e.g. wood dust, subtilisins (bacterial enzymes) and flour dust. Exposure limits for bacterial endotoxin have been proposed. Risk assessment is seriously hampered by the lack of valid quantitative exposure assessment methods. Traditional culture methods to quantify microbial exposures have proven to be of limited use. Non-culture methods and assessment methods for microbial constituents [e.g. allergens, endotoxin, beta(1-->3)-glucans, fungal extracellular polysaccharides] appear more successful; however, experience with these methods is generally limited. Therefore, more research is needed to establish better exposure assessment tools and validate newly developed methods. Other important areas that require further research include: potential protective effects of microbial exposures on atopy and atopic diseases, inter-individual susceptibility for biological exposures, interactions of bioaerosols with non-biological agents and other potential health effects such as skin and neurological conditions and birth effects.
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            Health effects of air pollution.

            The general public, especially patients with upper or lower respiratory symptoms, is aware from media reports that adverse respiratory effects can occur from air pollution. It is important for the allergist to have a current knowledge of the potential health effects of air pollution and how they might affect their patients to advise them accordingly. Specifically, the allergist-clinical immunologist should be keenly aware that both gaseous and particulate outdoor pollutants might aggravate or enhance the underlying pathophysiology of both the upper and lower airways. Epidemiologic and laboratory exposure research studies investigating the health effects of outdoor air pollution each have advantages and disadvantages. Epidemiologic studies can show statistical associations between levels of individual or combined air pollutants and outcomes, such as rates of asthma, emergency visits for asthma, or hospital admissions, but cannot prove a causative role. Human exposure studies, animal models, and tissue or cellular studies provide further information on mechanisms of response but also have inherent limitations. The aim of this rostrum is to review the relevant publications that provide the appropriate context for assessing the risks of air pollution relative to other more modifiable environmental factors in patients with allergic airways disease.
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              Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase are involved in pollen tube growth.

              Tip-localized reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected in growing pollen tubes by chloromethyl dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate oxidation, while tip-localized extracellular superoxide production was detected by nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction. To investigate the origin of the ROS we cloned a fragment of pollen specific tobacco NADPH oxidase (NOX) closely related to a pollen specific NOX from Arabidopsis. Transfection of tobacco pollen tubes with NOX-specific antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) resulted in decreased amount of NtNOX mRNA, lower NOX activity and pollen tube growth inhibition. The ROS scavengers and the NOX inhibitor diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI) inhibited growth and ROS formation in tobacco pollen tube cultures. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) rescued the growth inhibition caused by NOX antisense ODNs. Exogenous CaCl2 increased NBT reduction at the pollen tube tip, suggesting that Ca2+ increases the activity of pollen NOX in vivo. The results show that tip-localized ROS produced by a NOX enzyme is needed to sustain the normal rate of pollen tube growth and that this is likely to be a general mechanism in the control of tip growth of polarized plant cells.

                Author and article information

                The Scientific World Journal
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                24 December 2015
                : 2015
                1Allergy & Environment Team, Biochemistry Department, Armand Trousseau Children Hospital (AP-HP), 26 avenue du Dr. Arnold Netter, 75571 Paris, France
                2Physical Chemistry of Combustion and Atmosphere Processes (PC2A), UMR CNRS 8522, University of Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq, France
                3Pneumo-Allergology Department, North Hospital, 265 chemin des Bourrely, 13915 Marseille 20, France
                4Persiflore, 18 avenue du Parc, 91220 Le Plessis-Pâté, France
                5CNRS, 75794 Paris 16, France
                6SEVE Team, Ecology and Biology of Interactions (EBI), UMR-CNRS-UP 7267, University of Poitiers, 3 rue Jacques Fort, 86073 Poitiers, France
                7KeyGene, P.O. Box 216, 6708 AE Wageningen, Netherlands
                8Biochemistry Department, Armand Trousseau Children Hospital (AP-HP), 26 avenue du Dr. Arnold Netter, 75571 Paris 12, France
                9French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health Safety, 14 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 94701 Maisons-Alfort, France
                10Allergology Department, Pasteur Institute, 25-28 rue du Dr. Roux, 75724 Paris 15, France
                11Infections & Epidemiology Department, Pasteur Institute, 25-28 rue du Dr. Roux, 75724 Paris 15, France
                Author notes
                *Hélène Sénéchal: helene.senechal@ 123456aphp.fr and

                Academic Editor: Costas Varotsos

                Copyright © 2015 Hélène Sénéchal et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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