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      Ultrasound monitoring of the uterus and ovaries of dominant and subordinate females of yellow-breasted capuchin (Sapajus xanthosternos) and robust tufted capuchin (Sapajus robustus) in captive colonies during the ovarian cycle and anestrus periods Translated title: Acompanhamento ultrassonográfico do útero e ovários de fêmeas dominantes e subordinadas de macacos-prego-do-peito-amarelo (Sapajus xanthosternos) e macacos-prego-de-crista (Sapajus robustus) em colônias cativas, durante o ciclo ovariano e períodos de anestro

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      Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira

      Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA

      Ultrasound, monitoring, uterus, ovaries, dominant female, subordinate female, yellow-breasted capuchin, Sapajus xanthosternos, robust tufted capuchin, Sapajus robustus, captive colonies, ovarian cycle, anestrus period, neotropical primates, reproductive system, female, reproduction, wildlife animals, Ultrassonografia, útero, ovários, fêmeas dominantes, fêmeas subordinadas, macacos-prego-do-peito-amarelo, Sapajus xanthosternos, macacos-prego-de-crista, Sapajus robustus, colônias cativas, ciclo ovariano, anestro, primatas neotropicais, sistema reprodutivo, ultrassom, reprodução, animais selvagens

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          ABSTRACT: The yellow-breasted capuchin (Sapajus xanthosternos) and robust tufted capuchin (Sapajus robustus) are endangered species due to destruction of their natural habitat and predatory chase. However, it is still necessary to elucidate some details of their reproductive physiology in order to obtain better indices in the assisted reproduction of these species. This study aimed to evaluate the ovarian cycle of 13 dominant and subordinate females of S. xanthosternos (n=8) and S. robustus (n=5) using sagittal and transversally scanned ultrasound of their uterus and ovaries. Sonograms were performed every seven days for two months. The ovarian cycle phase and anestrous condition were confirmed by colpocytology. Our results showed different uterine parameters (craniocaudal diameter, dorso-ventral diameter, and transverse diameter) (P<0.05) between anestrous subordinate females and other ovarian cycle phases and social classes. The mean of uterine volume was higher in dominant females than subordinate females in all cycle phases (P<0.05), except in follicular phase. During anestrus, endometrial width was smaller in subordinate females than in dominant females (P<0.05). Subordinate females showed differences in endometrial measures (P<0.05) between anestrous period and follicular and luteal periods. Ovarian measures in dominant females were higher than in subordinate females only during anestrus (P<0.05). In the subordinate females, ovarian parameters were different (P<0.05) between anestrus and follicular and luteal phases. Dominant females showed higher volume of right ovary compared to volume of the left ovary during anestrus and follicular phase (P<0.05). Follicles and corpus luteum were distinguished by ultrasonography in most exams (86.11%). During anestrus, measurable ovarian structures were not observed in both ovaries in dominant and subordinate females. In conclusion, the methodology used in this study allowed to evaluate the ovarian cycle in S. xanthosternos e S. robustus females and that cycle phase/anestrus and social class of the female influenced the size of the uterus and ovaries.

          Translated abstract

          RESUMO: O macaco-prego-do-peito-amarelo (Sapajus xanthosternos) e o macaco-prego-de-crista (Sapajus robustus) encontram-se em risco de extinção devido a destruição do seu habitat e a caça predatória. Porém, ainda necessita-se elucidar alguns detalhes de sua fisiologia reprodutiva, para obterem-se melhores índices por meio de reprodução assistida. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi acompanhar o ciclo ovariano de 13 fêmeas dominantes e subordinadas de S. xanthosternos (n=8) e S. robustus (n=5) por meio de cortes ultrassonográficos sagitais e transversais do útero e dos ovários. Estas fêmeas foram examinadas uma vez por semana durante dois meses. A fase do ciclo ovariano/anestro foi confirmada pela colpocitologia. Os resultados da pesquisa demonstrou diferença significativa (P<0,05) relacionada ao diâmetro crânio-caudal, diâmetro dorso-ventral e diâmetro transversal entre as fêmeas subordinadas em anestro com todas as outras fases do ciclo ovariano e classes sociais. A média do volume uterino foi maior nas fêmeas dominantes que nas subordinadas em todas as fases do ciclo (P<0,05) a exceção da fase folicular. A largura endometrial, durante o período de anestro, foi menor nas fêmeas subordinadas quando comparada às dominantes (P<0,05). Nas fêmeas subordinadas, houve diferenças (P<0,05) nas mensurações endometriais entre o período de anestro e das fases folicular e lútea. Quanto aos ovários, as médias das medidas observadas nas fêmeas dominantes foram superiores as das subordinadas durante o anestro (P<0,05). As médias das medidas das variáveis ovarianas das fêmeas subordinadas apresentaram diferenças entre o anestro e as fases folicular e lútea (P<0,05). Nas fêmeas dominantes o volume do ovário direito foi maior que o do ovário esquerdo durante o anestro e na fase folicular (P<0,05). Folículos e corpos lúteos foram diferenciados pela ultrassonografia na maioria das coletas (86,11%). Durante o anestro não foram observadas estruturas ovarianas mensuráveis nos ovários em ambas as classes sociais. Concluiu-se que a metodologia empregada neste estudo permitiu o acompanhamento do ciclo ovariano das fêmeas S. xanthosternos e S. robustus e que as fases do ciclo/anestro e a classe social das fêmeas influenciaram as medidas do útero e ovários.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Ovarian reserve and reproductive age may be determined from measurement of ovarian volume by transvaginal sonography.

          The human ovary contains a fixed number of primordial follicles that decreases bi-exponentially with age, culminating in the menopause at an average age of 50-51 years. There currently is no reliable test of ovarian reserve for individual women that will accurately predict their remaining reproductive lifespan. We use the Faddy-Gosden model of human primordial follicle population decline to describe the natural decay of the ovarian follicle pool. Assuming that the wide distribution for age at menopause is due to the wide variation in number of primordial follicles at birth, we describe follicle population decline for early and late menopausal women. Using published data on age-related ovarian volume as measured by transvaginal sonography, we have obtained a highly significant correlation between primordial follicle population and ovarian volume. We show that ovarian volume in women aged 25-51 years accurately reflects the number of primordial follicles remaining, and describe how measurement of ovarian volume by transvaginal sonography may determine ovarian reserve and reproductive age. The accurate assessment of ovarian reserve will revolutionize the management of women requesting assisted conception, those who have had treatment for childhood cancer and those who are considering delaying a family for personal or professional reasons.
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            Evaluation of antral follicle growth in the macaque ovary during the menstrual cycle and controlled ovarian stimulation by high-resolution ultrasonography.

            To date, ultrasonography of monkey ovaries is rare and typically of low resolution. The objectives of this study were to use state-of-the-art, high-resolution, transabdominal ultrasonography with real-time Doppler capabilities to: (1) determine whether one can reliably detect in real time the large dominant follicle, the corpus luteum (CL), and small (<2 mm) antral follicles on the ovaries of rhesus monkeys during the natural menstrual cycle; and (2) predict the follicular response of rhesus ovaries to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) protocols. Rhesus monkeys were selected for transabdominal ultrasonography using a GE Voluson 730 Expert Doppler System at discrete stages of the menstrual cycle. Subsequently, serial ultrasound scanning was employed to observe growth of antral follicles and the CL. Finally, females were scanned to assess follicular growth during COS. The dominant structure and small antral follicles (<2 mm) were reliably visualized in real time. The follicle destined to ovulate could be identified by size differential by day 3 of the follicular phase. The number of small antral follicles present before onset of COS protocol correlated positively with the number of metaphase II-stage oocytes collected after treatment. The results of this study demonstrate that the population dynamics of antral follicle pools can be noninvasively evaluated in monkeys during natural and pharmacologic ovarian cycles.
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              Use of neotropical and Malagasy primates species in biomedical research


                Author and article information

                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira
                Pesq. Vet. Bras.
                Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil )
                December 2019
                : 39
                : 12
                : 989-996
                Guapimirim RJ orgnameInstituto Estadual do Ambiente orgdiv1Centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro Brazil
                Rio de Janeiro orgnameFundação Oswaldo Cruz orgdiv1Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia em Biomodelos orgdiv2Setor de Primatologia Brazil
                Niterói Rio de Janeiro orgnameUniversidade Federal Fluminense orgdiv1Instituto Biomédico orgdiv2Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia Brazil
                Niterói Rio de Janeiro orgnameUniversidade Federal Fluminense orgdiv1Faculdade de Veterinária orgdiv2Departamento de Patologia e Clínica Veterinária Brazil
                S0100-736X2019001200989 S0100-736X(19)03901200989

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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