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      A Multispecificity Syntaxin Homologue, Vam3p, Essential for Autophagic and Biosynthetic Protein Transport to the Vacuole

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          Abstract

          Protein transport in eukaryotic cells requires the selective docking and fusion of transport intermediates with the appropriate target membrane. t-SNARE molecules that are associated with distinct intracellular compartments may serve as receptors for transport vesicle docking and membrane fusion through interactions with specific v-SNARE molecules on vesicle membranes, providing the inherent specificity of these reactions. VAM3 encodes a 283–amino acid protein that shares homology with the syntaxin family of t-SNARE molecules. Polyclonal antiserum raised against Vam3p recognized a 35-kD protein that was associated with vacuolar membranes by subcellular fractionation. Null mutants of vam3 exhibited defects in the maturation of multiple vacuolar proteins and contained numerous aberrant membrane-enclosed compartments. To study the primary function of Vam3p, a temperature-sensitive allele of vam3 was generated ( vam3 tsf ). Upon shifting the vam3 tsf mutant cells to nonpermissive temperature, an immediate block in protein transport through two distinct biosynthetic routes to the vacuole was observed: transport via both the carboxypeptidase Y pathway and the alkaline phosphatase pathway was inhibited. In addition, vam3 tsf cells also exhibited defects in autophagy. Both the delivery of aminopeptidase I and the docking/ fusion of autophagosomes with the vacuole were defective at high temperature. Upon temperature shift, vam3 tsf cells accumulated novel membrane compartments, including multivesicular bodies, which may represent blocked transport intermediates. Genetic interactions between VAM3 and a SEC1 family member, VPS33, suggest the two proteins may act together to direct the docking and/or fusion of multiple transport intermediates with the vacuole. Thus, Vam3p appears to function as a multispecificity receptor in heterotypic membrane docking and fusion reactions with the vacuole. Surprisingly, we also found that overexpression of the endosomal t-SNARE, Pep12p, suppressed vam3Δ mutant phenotypes and, likewise, overexpression of Vam3p suppressed the pep12Δ mutant phenotypes. This result indicated that SNAREs alone do not define the specificity of vesicle docking reactions.

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          Most cited references 52

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          Transformation of intact yeast cells treated with alkali cations.

           H Ito,  K Murata,  A Kimura (1982)
          Intact yeast cells treated with alkali cations took up plasmid DNA. Li+, Cs+, Rb+, K+, and Na+ were effective in inducing competence. Conditions for the transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae D13-1A with plasmid YRp7 were studied in detail with CsCl. The optimum incubation time was 1 h, and the optimum cell concentration was 5 x 10(7) cells per ml. The optimum concentration of Cs+ was 1.0 M. Transformation efficiency increased with increasing concentrations of plasmid DNA. Polyethylene glycol was absolutely required. Heat pulse and various polyamines or basic proteins stimulated the uptake of plasmid DNA. Besides circular DNA, linear plasmid DNA was also taken up by Cs+-treated yeast cells, although the uptake efficiency was considerably reduced. The transformation efficiency with Cs+ or Li+ was comparable with that of conventional protoplast methods for a plasmid containing ars1, although not for plasmids containing a 2 microns origin replication.
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            Mechanisms of intracellular protein transport.

            Recent advances have uncovered the general protein apparatus used by all eukaryotes for intracellular transport, including secretion and endocytosis, and for triggered exocytosis of hormones and neurotransmitters. Membranes are shaped into vesicles by cytoplasmic coats which then dissociate upon GTP hydrolysis. Both vesicles and their acceptor membranes carry targeting proteins which interact specifically to initiate docking. A general apparatus then assembles at the docking site and fuses the vesicle with its target.
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              A new vital stain for visualizing vacuolar membrane dynamics and endocytosis in yeast

               SD Emr (1995)
              We have used a lipophilic styryl dye, N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4- (p-diethylaminophenyl-hexatrienyl) pyridinium dibromide (FM 4-64), as a vital stain to follow bulk membrane-internalization and transport to the vacuole in yeast. After treatment for 60 min at 30 degrees C, FM 4- 64 stained the vacuole membrane (ring staining pattern). FM 4-64 did not appear to reach the vacuole by passive diffusion because at 0 degree C it exclusively stained the plasma membrane (PM). The PM staining decreased after warming cells to 25 degrees C and small punctate structures became apparent in the cytoplasm within 5-10 min. After an additional 20-40 min, the PM and cytoplasmic punctate staining disappeared concomitant with staining of the vacuolar membrane. Under steady state conditions, FM 4-64 staining was specific for vacuolar membranes; other membrane structures were not stained. The dye served as a sensitive reporter of vacuolar dynamics, detecting such events as segregation structure formation during mitosis, vacuole fission/fusion events, and vacuolar morphology in different classes of vacuolar protein sorting (vps) mutants. A particularly striking pattern was observed in class E mutants (e.g., vps27) where 500-700 nm organelles (presumptive prevacuolar compartments) were intensely stained with FM 4- 64 while the vacuole membrane was weakly fluorescent. Internalization of FM 4-64 at 15 degrees C delayed vacuolar labeling and trapped FM 4- 64 in cytoplasmic intermediates between the PM and the vacuole. The intermediate structures in the cytoplasm are likely to be endosomes as their staining was temperature, time, and energy dependent. Interestingly, unlike Lucifer yellow uptake, vacuolar labeling by FM 4- 64 was not blocked in sec18, sec14, end3, and end4 mutants, but was blocked in sec1 mutant cells. Finally, using permeabilized yeast spheroplasts to reconstitute FM 4-64 transport, we found that delivery of FM 4-64 from the endosome-like intermediate compartment (labeled at 15 degrees C) to the vacuole was ATP and cytosol dependent. Thus, we show that FM 4-64 is a new vital stain for the vacuolar membrane, a marker for endocytic intermediates, and a fluor for detecting endosome to vacuole membrane transport in vitro.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Cell Biol
                The Journal of Cell Biology
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0021-9525
                1540-8140
                11 August 1997
                : 138
                : 3
                : 517-529
                Affiliations
                Division of Cellular and Molecular Medicine and Department of Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, La Jolla, California 92093-0668
                Article
                2141632
                9245783
                Categories
                Article

                Cell biology

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