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      Asthma Control and Its Relationship with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in Older Adults

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          Abstract

          Background/Objectives. Asthma in older individuals is poorly understood. We aimed to characterize the older asthma phenotype and test its association with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Pulmonary and Asthma/Allergy clinics. Participants. 659 asthma subjects aged 18–59 years (younger) and 154 aged 60–75 (older). Measurements. Sleep Apnea scale of Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SA-SDQ), asthma severity step (1–4, severe if step 3 or 4), established OSA diagnosis, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) use, and comorbidities. Results. Older versus younger had worse control, as assessed by asthma step, lung function, and inhaled corticosteroid use. Among older subjects, after controlling for known asthma aggravators, OSA diagnosis was the only factor robustly associated with severe asthma: on average, OSA was associated with nearly 7 times greater likelihood of severe asthma in an older individual (OR = 6.67). This relationship was of greater magnitude than in younger subjects (OR = 2.16). CPAP use attenuated the likelihood of severe asthma in older subjects by 91% ( P = 0.005), much more than in the younger asthmatics. Conclusion. Diagnosed OSA increases the risk for worse asthma control in older patients, while CPAP therapy may have greater impact on asthma outcomes. Unrecognized OSA may be a reason for poor asthma control, particularly among older patients.

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          Most cited references 65

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          Standards for the diagnosis and care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. This official statement of the American Thoracic Society was adopted by the ATS Board of Directors, November 1986.

           APA Standards (1987)
          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are the major causes of pulmonary disability in the United States, with at least 10 million Americans suffering form COPD and up to 5% of the population afflicted with asthma. Over the past 20 years, major strides have been made in our understanding of the pathophysiology of these disorders, although there are still large gaps in our knowledge. While a number of position papers and statements have been promulgated by the American Thoracic Society concerning various aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of COPD and asthma, it was felt that a review of the overall topic was timely. This statement represents the combined efforts of a Task Group appointed by the Scientific Assemble of Clinical Problems of the American Thoracic Society to accomplish this task. Clearly, we could not cover every aspect of this broad topic nor even provide a detailed review of those areas addressed. We elected instead to concentrate on clinically relevant topics and to provide sufficient data to be useful as a guide as well as to include selected, but in no was exhaustive, references. The first two chapters define the entities and set forth recommendations for diagnosis, hospital admission, and discharge. The remaining four chapters critically review the various facets of therapy. We have noted controversial areas and those were conclusive experimental data are not yet available. In these situations, the committee often decided to take a position on one side or the other based upon the best available information.
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            Asthma in older adults.

            Asthma in older people is common and is characterised by underdiagnosis and undertreatment. Ageing is associated with unique issues that modify expression, recognition, and treatment of the disease. In particular, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) both overlap and converge in older people. This concurrence, together with absence of precise diagnostic methods, makes diagnosis complex. A multidimensional assessment that addresses airway problems, comorbidities, risk factors, and management skills will draw attention to key needs for intervention. Increased attention to the complications of asthma and obstructive airway disease in older people is needed, specifically to develop effective systems of care, appropriate clinical practice guidelines, and a research agenda that delivers improved health outcomes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Risk factors of frequent exacerbations in difficult-to-treat asthma.

              Recurrent exacerbations are a major cause of morbidity and medical expenditure in patients with asthma. Various exogenous and endogenous factors are thought to influence the level of asthma control, but systematical data on the involvement of these factors in the recurrence of asthma exacerbations are scarce. In this study, 13 clinical and environmental factors potentially associated with recurrent exacerbations were investigated in 136 patients with difficult-to-treat asthma. Patients with more than three severe exacerbations (n = 39) in the previous year were compared with those with only one exacerbation per year (n = 24). A systematic diagnostic protocol was used to assess 13 potential risk factors. Factors significantly associated with frequent exacerbations included: severe nasal sinus disease (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.7); gastro-oesophageal reflux (OR 4.9); recurrent respiratory infections (OR 6.9); psychological dysfunctioning (OR 10.8); and obstructive sleep apnoea (OR 3.4). Severe chronic sinus disease and psychological dysfunctioning were the only independently associated factors (adjusted OR 5.5 and 11.7, respectively). All patients with frequent exacerbations exhibited at least one of these five factors, whilst 52% showed three or more factors. In conclusion, the results show that recurrent exacerbations in asthma are associated with specific co-morbid factors that are easy to detect and that are treatable. Therapeutic interventions aimed at correcting these factors are likely to reduce morbidity and medical expenditure in these patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sleep Disord
                Sleep Disord
                SD
                Sleep Disorders
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2090-3545
                2090-3553
                2013
                6 November 2013
                : 2013
                Affiliations
                1James B. Skatrud Pulmonary/Sleep Research Laboratory, Medical Service, William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison, WI, USA
                2Section of Allergy, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, USA
                3Center for Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research/Wisconsin Sleep, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA
                4Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics and Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA
                5Department of Neurology and Sleep Disorders Center, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
                6Section of Geriatrics and Gerontology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA
                Author notes
                *Mihai C. Teodorescu: mct@ 123456medicine.wisc.edu

                Academic Editor: Giora Pillar

                Article
                10.1155/2013/251567
                3836422
                24307949
                Copyright © 2013 Mihaela Teodorescu et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

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