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      The selection by the Asiatic black bear ( Ursus thibetanus ) of spring plant food items according to their nutritional values

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          The present study aimed to investigate the nutritional aspects of the bear diet quantitatively, in order to understand plant food selection in spring. Bears were observed directly from April to July in 2013 and 2014, to visually recognize plant species consumed by bears, and to describe the foraging period in the Ashio-Nikko Mountains, central Japan. Leaves were collected from eight dominant tree species, regardless of whether bears fed on them in spring, and their key nutritional components analyzed: crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and total energy. Bears tended to consume fresh leaves of specific species in May, and nutritional analysis revealed that these leaves had higher CP and lower NDF than other non-food leaves. However, CP in consumed leaves gradually decreased, and NDF increased from May to July, when the bears’ food item preference changed from plant materials to ants. Bears may consume tree leaves with high CP and low NDF after hibernation to rebuild muscle mass.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Starvation physiology: reviewing the different strategies animals use to survive a common challenge.

          All animals face the possibility of limitations in food resources that could ultimately lead to starvation-induced mortality. The primary goal of this review is to characterize the various physiological strategies that allow different animals to survive starvation. The ancillary goals of this work are to identify areas in which investigations of starvation can be improved and to discuss recent advances and emerging directions in starvation research. The ubiquity of food limitation among animals, inconsistent terminology associated with starvation and fasting, and rationale for scientific investigations into starvation are discussed. Similarities and differences with regard to carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism during starvation are also examined in a comparative context. Examples from the literature are used to underscore areas in which reporting and statistical practices, particularly those involved with starvation-induced changes in body composition and starvation-induced hypometabolism can be improved. The review concludes by highlighting several recent advances and promising research directions in starvation physiology. Because the hundreds of studies reviewed here vary so widely in their experimental designs and treatments, formal comparisons of starvation responses among studies and taxa are generally precluded; nevertheless, it is my aim to provide a starting point from which we may develop novel approaches, tools, and hypotheses to facilitate meaningful investigations into the physiology of starvation in animals. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Digestive and metabolic efficiencies of grizzly and black bears

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              Toward a quantitative nutritional ecology: the right-angled mixture triangle

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                ZooKeys
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2017
                4 May 2017
                : 672
                : 121-133
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan
                [2 ] Kanagawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History, 499 Iryuda, Odawara, Kanagawa 250-0031, Japan
                [3 ] Ibaraki Nature Museum, 700 Osaki, Bando, Ibaraki 306-0622, Japan
                [4 ] Present address: National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 2-1-18 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8518, Japan
                [5 ] Present address: Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagaya, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Shinsuke Koike ( koikes@ 123456cc.tuat.ac.jp )

                Academic editor: J. Maldonado

                Article
                10.3897/zookeys.672.10078
                5527342
                Shino Furusaka, Chinatsu Kozakai, Yui Nemoto, Yoshihiro Umemura, Tomoko Naganuma, Koji Yamazaki, Shinsuke Koike

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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                Research Article

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