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      Plant hormones and neurotransmitter interactions mediate antioxidant defenses under induced oxidative stress in plants


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          Due to global climate change, abiotic stresses are affecting plant growth, productivity, and the quality of cultivated crops. Stressful conditions disrupt physiological activities and suppress defensive mechanisms, resulting in stress-sensitive plants. Consequently, plants implement various endogenous strategies, including plant hormone biosynthesis (e.g., abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, brassinosteroids, indole-3-acetic acid, cytokinins, ethylene, gibberellic acid, and strigolactones) to withstand stress conditions. Combined or single abiotic stress disrupts the normal transportation of solutes, causes electron leakage, and triggers reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, creating oxidative stress in plants. Several enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense systems marshal a plant’s antioxidant defenses. While stress responses and the protective role of the antioxidant defense system have been well-documented in recent investigations, the interrelationships among plant hormones, plant neurotransmitters (NTs, such as serotonin, melatonin, dopamine, acetylcholine, and γ-aminobutyric acid), and antioxidant defenses are not well explained. Thus, this review discusses recent advances in plant hormones, transgenic and metabolic developments, and the potential interaction of plant hormones with NTs in plant stress response and tolerance mechanisms. Furthermore, we discuss current challenges and future directions (transgenic breeding and genome editing) for metabolic improvement in plants using modern molecular tools. The interaction of plant hormones and NTs involved in regulating antioxidant defense systems, molecular hormone networks, and abiotic-induced oxidative stress tolerance in plants are also discussed.

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          ROS function in redox signaling and oxidative stress.

          Oxidative stress refers to elevated intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause damage to lipids, proteins and DNA. Oxidative stress has been linked to a myriad of pathologies. However, elevated ROS also act as signaling molecules in the maintenance of physiological functions--a process termed redox biology. In this review we discuss the two faces of ROS--redox biology and oxidative stress--and their contribution to both physiological and pathological conditions. Redox biology involves a small increase in ROS levels that activates signaling pathways to initiate biological processes, while oxidative stress denotes high levels of ROS that result in damage to DNA, protein or lipids. Thus, the response to ROS displays hormesis, given that the opposite effect is observed at low levels compared with that seen at high levels. Here, we argue that redox biology, rather than oxidative stress, underlies physiological and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            ROS Are Good.

            Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to play a dual role in plant biology. They are required for many important signaling reactions, but are also toxic byproducts of aerobic metabolism. Recent studies revealed that ROS are necessary for the progression of several basic biological processes including cellular proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, cell death-that was previously thought to be the outcome of ROS directly killing cells by oxidation, in other words via oxidative stress-is now considered to be the result of ROS triggering a physiological or programmed pathway for cell death. This Opinion focuses on the possibility that ROS are beneficial to plants, supporting cellular proliferation, physiological function, and viability, and that maintaining a basal level of ROS in cells is essential for life.
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              Reactive oxygen gene network of plants.


                Author and article information

                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                09 September 2022
                : 13
                : 961872
                [1] 1Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, Oil Crops Research Institute, Center of Legume Crop Genetics and Systems Biology/College of Agriculture, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University , Fuzhou, China
                [2] 2Laboratory of Plant Cell Biology, Department of Biology, Bu-Ali Sina University , Hamedan, Iran
                [3] 3Grassland and Forage Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration , Cheonan, South Korea
                [4] 4Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology , Islamabad, Pakistan
                [5] 5Department of Biology, Plant Physiology, Faculty of Science, Lorestan University , Khorramabad, Iran
                [6] 6Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences , Kermanshah, Iran
                [7] 7State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences , Hangzhou, China
                [8] 8Department of Agricultural Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University , Cairo, Egypt
                [9] 9Department of Biology, Faculty of Applied Science, Umm Al-Qura University , Makkah, Saudi Arabia
                [10] 10College of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University , Fuzhou, China
                [11] 11The UWA Institute of Agriculture, The University of Western Australia , Perth, WA, Australia
                Author notes

                Edited by: Iftikhar Ali, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology (CAS), China

                Reviewed by: Rajesh Singhal, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute (ICAR), India; Abdullah Shalmani, Huazhong Agricultural University, China; Muhammad Jawad Umer, Quaid-i-Azam University, Pakistan

                *Correspondence: Ali Raza, alirazamughal143@ 123456gmail.com
                Kadambot H. M. Siddique, kadambot.siddique@ 123456uwa.edu.au

                ORCID: Ali Raza, orcid.org/0000-0002-5120-2791; Hajar Salehi, orcid.org/0000-0001-8578-9423; Maryam Madadkar Haghjou, orcid.org/0000-0002-8007-5111; Shiva Najafi-Kakavand, orcid.org/0000-0002-4994-0533; Sidra Charagh, orcid.org/0000-0002-8077-7324; Hany S. Osman, orcid.org/0000-0002-7132-9511; Kadambot H. M. Siddique, orcid.org/0000-0001-6097-4235

                This article was submitted to Plant Abiotic Stress, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Copyright © 2022 Raza, Salehi, Rahman, Zahid, Madadkar Haghjou, Najafi-Kakavand, Charagh, Osman, Albaqami, Zhuang, Siddique and Zhuang.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 05 June 2022
                : 03 August 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 316, Pages: 36, Words: 29468
                Funded by: National Social Science Fund of China, doi 10.13039/501100012456;
                Plant Science

                Plant science & Botany
                abiotic stress,climate change,drought stress,gaba,genetic engineering,melatonin,transgenic approach


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