The Streptococcus mutans Cid/Lrg system is central to the physiology of this cariogenic organism, affecting oxidative stress resistance, biofilm formation and competence. Previous transcriptome analyses of lytS (responsible for the regulation of lrgAB expression) and cidB mutants have revealed pleiotropic effects on carbohydrate metabolism and stress resistance genes. In this study, it was found that an lrgAB mutant, previously shown to have diminished aerobic and oxidative stress growth, was also much more growth impaired in the presence of heat and vancomycin stresses, relative to wild-type, lrgA and lrgB mutants. To obtain a more holistic picture of LrgAB and its involvement in stress resistance, RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analyses were used to assess the transcriptional response of wild-type and isogenic lrgAB mutants under anaerobic (control) and stress-inducing culture conditions (aerobic, heat and vancomycin). Hierarchical clustering and principal components analyses of all differentially expressed genes revealed that the most distinct gene expression profiles between S. mutans UA159 and lrgAB mutant occurred during aerobic and high-temperature growth. Similar to previous studies of a cidB mutant, lrgAB stress transcriptomes were characterized by a variety of gene expression changes related to genomic islands, CRISPR-C as systems, ABC transporters, competence, bacteriocins, glucosyltransferases, protein translation, tricarboxylic acid cycle, carbohydrate metabolism/storage and transport. Notably, expression of lrgAB was upregulated in the wild-type strain under all three stress conditions. Collectively, these results demonstrate that mutation of lrgAB alters the transcriptional response to stress, and further support the idea that the Cid/Lrg system acts to promote cell homeostasis in the face of environmental stress.