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      Heme Oxygenase-1 Accelerates Cutaneous Wound Healing in Mice

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          Abstract

          Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cytoprotective, pro-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory enzyme, is strongly induced in injured tissues. Our aim was to clarify its role in cutaneous wound healing. In wild type mice, maximal expression of HO-1 in the skin was observed on the 2 nd and 3 rd days after wounding. Inhibition of HO-1 by tin protoporphyrin-IX resulted in retardation of wound closure. Healing was also delayed in HO-1 deficient mice, where lack of HO-1 could lead to complete suppression of reepithelialization and to formation of extensive skin lesions, accompanied by impaired neovascularization. Experiments performed in transgenic mice bearing HO-1 under control of keratin 14 promoter showed that increased level of HO-1 in keratinocytes is enough to improve the neovascularization and hasten the closure of wounds. Importantly, induction of HO-1 in wounded skin was relatively weak and delayed in diabetic (db/db) mice, in which also angiogenesis and wound closure were impaired. In such animals local delivery of HO-1 transgene using adenoviral vectors accelerated the wound healing and increased the vascularization. In summary, induction of HO-1 is necessary for efficient wound closure and neovascularization. Impaired wound healing in diabetic mice may be associated with delayed HO-1 upregulation and can be improved by HO-1 gene transfer.

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          Most cited references 71

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          Heme oxygenase: function, multiplicity, regulatory mechanisms, and clinical applications.

           Mahin Maines (1988)
          In biological systems oxidation of heme is carried out by two isozymes of the microsomal heme oxygenase, HO-1 and HO-2. HO-1 is the commonly known heme oxygenase, the activity of which can be induced by up to 100-fold in response to a wide variety of stimuli (metals, heme, hormones, etc.). HO-2 was only recently discovered, and the isozyme appears to be uninducible. The two forms are products of two different genes and differ in their tissue expression. The primary structure of HO-1 and an HO-2 fragment of 91 amino acid residues show only 58% homology, but share a region with 100% secondary structure homology. This region is believed to be the catalytic site. Most likely, HO-1 gene is regulated in the same manner as metallothione in the gene. HO-1 has a heat shock regulatory element, and possibly many promoter elements, which bind to respective inducers and cause transcription of the gene. In vivo induction of HO-1 activity in the liver is accompanied by decreases in the total P-450 levels and, in a reconstituted system, cytochrome P-450b heme can be quantitatively converted to biliverdin by HO-1 and HO-2. The enzyme activity is inhibited in vivo for extended periods subsequent to binding of Zn- and Sn- protoporphyrins. This property appears useful for the suppression of bilirubin production. The metalloporphyrins, however, are not innocuous and cause major disruptions in cellular metabolism. In this review recent findings on heme oxygenase are highlighted.
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            Topical vascular endothelial growth factor accelerates diabetic wound healing through increased angiogenesis and by mobilizing and recruiting bone marrow-derived cells.

            Diminished production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and decreased angiogenesis are thought to contribute to impaired tissue repair in diabetic patients. We examined whether recombinant human VEGF(165) protein would reverse the impaired wound healing phenotype in genetically diabetic mice. Paired full-thickness skin wounds on the dorsum of db/db mice received 20 microg of VEGF every other day for five doses to one wound and vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline) to the other. We demonstrate significantly accelerated repair in VEGF-treated wounds with an average time to resurfacing of 12 days versus 25 days in untreated mice. VEGF-treated wounds were characterized by an early leaky, malformed vasculature followed by abundant granulation tissue deposition. The VEGF-treated wounds demonstrated increased epithelialization, increased matrix deposition, and enhanced cellular proliferation, as assessed by uptake of 5-bromodeoxyuridine. Analysis of gene expression by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction demonstrates a significant up-regulation of platelet-derived growth factor-B and fibroblast growth factor-2 in VEGF-treated wounds, which corresponds with the increased granulation tissue in these wounds. These experiments also demonstrated an increase in the rate of repair of the contralateral phosphate-buffered saline-treated wound when compared to wounds in diabetic mice never exposed to VEGF (18 days versus 25 days), suggesting that topical VEGF had a systemic effect. We observed increased numbers of circulating VEGFR2(+)/CD11b(-) cells in the VEGF-treated mice by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, which likely represent an endothelial precursor population. In diabetic mice with bone marrow replaced by that of tie2/lacZ mice we demonstrate that the local recruitment of bone marrow-derived endothelial lineage lacZ+ cells was augmented by topical VEGF. We conclude that topical VEGF is able to improve wound healing by locally up-regulating growth factors important for tissue repair and by systemically mobilizing bone marrow-derived cells, including a population that contributes to blood vessel formation, and recruiting these cells to the local wound environment where they are able to accelerate repair. Thus, VEGF therapy may be useful in the treatment of diabetic complications characterized by impaired neovascularization.
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              Reduced stress defense in heme oxygenase 1-deficient cells.

              Stressed mammalian cells up-regulate heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1; EC 1.14.99.3), which catabolizes heme to biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and free iron. To assess the potential role of Hmox1 in cellular antioxidant defense, we analyzed the responses of cells from mice lacking functional Hmox1 to oxidative challenges. Cultured Hmox1(-/-) embryonic fibroblasts demonstrated high oxygen free radical production when exposed to hemin, hydrogen peroxide, paraquat, or cadmium chloride, and they were hypersensitive to cytotoxicity caused by hemin and hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, young adult Hmox1(-/-) mice were vulnerable to mortality and hepatic necrosis when challenged with endotoxin. Our in vitro and in vivo results provide genetic evidence that up-regulation of Hmox1 serves as an adaptive mechanism to protect cells from oxidative damage during stress.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2009
                4 June 2009
                : 4
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
                [2 ]Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
                [3 ]R&D Division, Adamed Ltd., Pienkow, Poland
                [4 ]Centre for Molecular Biophysics, CNRS, Orleans, France
                [5 ]Centre for Transgenic Animals, CNRS, Orleans, France
                Ohio State University Medical Center, United States of America
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: AGP JD AJ. Performed the experiments: AGP RL JM KS MG PS MD AJR AZ JW HW JK. Analyzed the data: AGP RL JM KS MG PS MD AJR AZ JW HW JK AJ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MK JD KK CK YH JD AJ. Wrote the paper: AGP JD AJ.

                Article
                09-PONE-RA-08216R1
                10.1371/journal.pone.0005803
                2686151
                19495412
                Grochot-Przeczek et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Page count
                Pages: 16
                Categories
                Research Article
                Cell Biology/Gene Expression
                Genetics and Genomics/Gene Expression
                Genetics and Genomics/Gene Therapy
                Genetics and Genomics/Medical Genetics
                Cardiovascular Disorders/Vascular Biology
                Diabetes and Endocrinology/Type 2 Diabetes

                Uncategorized

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