Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. and Zucc. has been traditionally used as a member of many anti-inflammatory polyherbal formulations, but is now a widespread invasive neophyte in Europe and America. To discuss if the invasive variety is chemically identical to the native one in traditional medicine, the different constituents of the invasive variety compared to the native variety were isolated and their anti-inflammatory activity was tested. Resveratroloside and catechin-(4α→8)-catechin, the newly found constituents in the invasive variety, have similar nitric oxide (NO) inhibition potency as that of piceid (the major constituent of P. cuspidatum), but the newly found major constituent, i.e., piceatannol glucoside, showed no apparent effect. On the other hand, as a marker, the total content of resveratrol in the methanol root extract after glucosidase hydrolysis was measured and compared between the invasive and native varieties. The total content of resveratrol measured in the root extracts of the Swiss sample was about 2.5 times less than that of the Chinese one. This study brings attention to the point that when the invasive variety of P. cuspidatum is used in traditional medicine, the chemical difference should be kept in mind.