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      Clinical and Neuroimaging Correlates of Mild Cognitive Impairment in a Middle-Aged Community Sample: The Personality and Total Health through Life 60+ Study

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          Abstract

          This cross-sectional study aimed at determining the clinical and structural brain magnetic resonance imaging correlates of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The data presented here are from the first wave of the longitudinal Personality and Total Health through Life 60+ project. 2,551 community-dwelling individuals in the age range of 60–64 years were recruited randomly through the electoral roll. They were screened using Mini-Mental State Examination and a short cognitive battery. Those who screened positive underwent detailed medical and neuropsychological assessments. Of the 224 subjects who screened positive, 117 underwent a detailed assessment. Twenty-nine subjects fulfilled the Mayo Clinic criteria for MCI. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were analyzed for 26 subjects with MCI as well as normal controls. Subjects were clinically evaluated for depressive symptoms and major and minor depression syndromes. Logistic regression analysis was performed predicting MCI from anterior and mid-ventricular brain ratios, cortical atrophy measures, hippocampal volumes, volumes of amygdala and white matter hyperintensities after adjusting for age, gender, years of education, depression and physical disability. None of the neuroanatomical substrates appeared as predictors of MCI. The only predictors were higher depression scores and fewer years of education. Structural neuroimaging may not have an added advantage in the detection of MCI in middle-aged community-dwelling subjects. It may be that this age group is too young for such brain changes to be identified.

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          Most cited references 13

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          VALIDITY OF THE TRAIL MAKING TEST AS AN INDICATOR OF ORGANIC BRAIN DAMAGE

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            Risk factors for mild cognitive impairment in the Cardiovascular Health Study Cognition Study: part 2.

            To examine the risk factors for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a longitudinal population study-the Cardiovascular Health Study Cognition Study. We examined the factors that in the period 1991 through 1994 predicted the development of MCI in all participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study Cognition Study. Further examination was conducted in the Pittsburgh, Pa, cohort (n = 927), where participants with MCI were classified as having either the MCI amnestic-type or the MCI multiple cognitive deficits-type. Multicenter population study. This study includes all participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study Cognition Study (n = 3608) who had a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain between 1991 and 1994, and detailed neuropsychological, neurological, and medical evaluations to identify the presence of MCI or dementia in the period 1998 to 1999. The mean time between the closest clinical examination to the MRI and the diagnostic evaluation for cognitive disorders was 5.8 years for the Cardiovascular Health Study Cognition Study cohort and 6.0 years for the Pittsburgh cohort. Risk factors for MCI at the time of the MRI were identified using logistic regression, controlling for age, race, educational level, baseline Modified Mini-Mental State Examination and Digit Symbol Test scores, measurements of depression, MRI findings (atrophy, ventricular volume, white matter lesions, and infarcts), the presence of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon4 allele, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and heart disease. Mild cognitive impairment (n = 577) was associated with race (African American), low educational level, low Modified Mini-Mental State Examination and Digit Symbol Test scores, cortical atrophy, MRI-identified infarcts, and measurements of depression. The MCI amnestic-type was associated with MRI-identified infarcts, the presence of the APOE epsilon4 allele, and low Modified Mini-Mental State Examination scores. The MCI multiple cognitive deficits-type was associated with low Modified Mini-Mental State Examination and Digit Symbol Test scores. The development of MCI is associated with measurements of cognition and depression, racial and constitutional factors, and cerebrovascular disease. Early cognitive deficits seem to be a common denominator for the 2 forms of MCI; the presence of cerebrovascular disease and the APOE epsilon4 allele is associated with the amnestic type of MCI.
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              Cerebrovascular and brain morphologic correlates of mild cognitive impairment in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Twin Study.

              To evaluate the relative risk (RR) of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) associated with cerebrovascular risk factors and cerebrovascular-related brain changes. Mild cognitive impairment was determined for the subjects of the prospective National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Twin Study. Quantitative measures of brain, white matter hyperintensity, cerebral infarction, apolipoprotein E genotype, and psychometric testing were obtained. Subjects with MCI were older (73.5 +/- 3.0 vs 72.1 +/- 2.8 years), consumed less alcohol (3.7 +/- 5.8 vs 7.0 +/- 10.7 drinks per week), had greater white matter hyperintensity volumes (0.56% +/- 0.82% vs 0.25% +/- 0.34% of cranial volume), and had an increased prevalence of apolipoprotein E4 genotype (31.4% vs 19.2%) than normal subjects. White matter hyperintensity and the presence of the apolipoprotein E4 genotype were associated with a significantly increased risk for MCI. When all subjects were included in the analysis, alcohol consumption was associated with a reduced risk for MCI (RR = 0.93, P<.05). When subjects with a history of symptomatic cerebrovascular disease were excluded from the analysis, elevated midlife diastolic blood pressure was associated with an increased risk for MCI (RR = 1.70, P<.05). Elevated midlife blood pressures, and the resulting increased white matter hyperintensities, increase the risk for MCI in a group of community-dwelling older men to at least the same degree as apolipoprotein E4 genotype. Given the common occurrence of elevations in midlife blood pressure, early and effective treatment may be warranted to prevent late-life brain abnormalities and MCI. Moreover, since many individuals with MCI progress to clinical dementia, longitudinal evaluations of this cohort will be important.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                DEM
                Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord
                10.1159/issn.1420-8008
                Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
                S. Karger AG
                1420-8008
                1421-9824
                2006
                December 2005
                15 December 2005
                : 21
                : 1
                : 44-50
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Psychological Medicine, Australian National University Medical School, bCentre for Mental Health Research, Australian National University, Canberra, cSchool of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, and dNeuropsychiatric Institute, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia
                Article
                89251 Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2006;21:44–50
                10.1159/000089251
                16254430
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 5, References: 34, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Research Article

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